2. Ideological Education

Personalities such as the Rev. Carl McIntyre and Dr. Fred Schwartz and his Christian Anti-Communist Crusade are recognized by Richard Gid Powers for their grassroots initiatives against communism, as are the controversies which surrounded them.32 Nevertheless, these activities are dwarfed by the anticommunist activities initiated by Rev. Moon (and the controversies related to them) which Powers fails to mention.

In his critique of communism, Rev. Moon emphasized Marxism's ideological shortcomings. This contrasted with criticisms of Marxism developed by figures such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Robert Conquest and Richard Wurmbrandt who tended to focus primarily on the enormity of the atrocities committed by the Marxist-Leninist system. In the case of Solzhenitsyn and Conquest, their writings also occasionally explored the character flaws of communism's protagonists, including Lenin, and Stalin. On certain occasions, Solzhenitsyn also commented eloquently on the ideologcial bankruptcy of communism; however, he ostensibly felt no need to formulate a systematic, comprehensive critique of Marxism-Leninism. Critiques of Marxism's deeds and doers played an important role in revealing the disturbingly sinister dimension of Marxism, yet such approaches were blunted in some circles by the moral equivalence argument which played down communim's excesses by pointing to the problems on the anticommunist side as well.

Multi-media CAUSA presentation by Bill Lay.
In his approach to communism, Rev. Moon chose to focus on developing and popularizing an analysis and critique of Marxism-Leninism's underlying tenets. From his own life experience, he had come to view the Marxist ideology itself as the Achilles' heel of communism, having concluded that the Marxist positions on alienation, dialectical materialism, and historical materialism were scientifically and philosophically invalid. His exposure to this theory and its consequences had been extensive, having worked as a missionary in North Korea from June, 1946 to December, 1950. This period included two years and eight months in a concentration camp in Hungnam, North Korea where he, like other prisoners, was subjected to required indoctrination in Marxism.

Over time, Rev. Moon, with the collaboration of one of his associates, Dr. Sang Hun Lee, formalized a comprehensive analysis of Marxist-Leninist ideology, including Marxist political economy. Rev. Moon devoted special attention to the practical implications of Marxism-Leninism's militantly atheistic position, the point de depart of his opposition to communism. His analysis and critique came to be known as Victory Over Communism Theory (VOC). The first English language translation of this material was published in 1972. It was refined through subsequent renditions.
33 One adaptation of this material, the CAUSA Lecture Manual (1985), was translated into eleven languages. In his book Jesuitas, Iglesia y Marxismo, Spain's renowned historian and former Minister of Culture Ricardo de la Cierva wrote that "the CAUSA Lecture Manual offers the best analysis of Marxism-Leninism in print."34

CAUSA lecturers reached out to more than 250,000 leaders worldwide between 1980 and 1992.
While VOC had a serious academic dimension, it distinguished itself from other ideological critiques of Marxism by being adapted for presentation to general audiences. During the 1970's, and 80's, millions throughout East Asia, North America, Latin America, Europe, and Africa, including political leaders, scholars, religious leaders, national security experts, military officers and grassroots activists, were educated in VOC theory.

a. VOC Activities in Korea and Japan
Popularization of VOC first began in Korea in 1963 when Rev. Moon initiated what came to be known as the International Federation for Victory over Communism (IFVOC).
35 By the early 1970's VOC theory had established itself as one of the principal sources of anticommunist education in South Korea. In 1974, The Washington Monthly reported that annually hundreds of thousands of civil servants, local officials and soldiers in South Korea were being trained in VOC theory, with government cooperation.36 On June 7, 1975, an anticommunism rally organized and addressed by Rev. Moon attracted over 1 million demonstrators at Yoido Island in Seoul, Korea.37 Regular education programs continued during the 1970's and 1980's and a strong grassroots VOC organization was established throughout the Republic of Korea. Activities included a nationwide campaign to boost South Korean morale in 1983 in the wake of the Soviet downing of KAL 007, and the terrorist bombing of South Korean officials in Rangoon, Burma. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of South Koreans joining in rallies and demonstrations in every major South Korean city.

VOC activities in Japan began with the establishment in 1964 of a student VOC organization, and an IFVOC national chapter in 1968. In response to the proliferation of anti-American activities on Japanese university campuses in the 1960's, the Japanese VOC movement held public teach-ins, pertaining to the ideological limitations of Marxism-Leninism. The activities continued throughout the 1980's. Frequently these programs provoked a violent reaction from Leftist students. In the print and broadcast media, IFVOC challenged Japan's Communist Party to public debates on Marxist theory more than 60 times, with the Communist Party circumventing each such challenge.
38 The Japanese Chapter of IFVOC also played a crucial role in the Taipei-based WACL (World Anti-Communist League) beginning in 1970.39

Jesus Gonzalez lectured to 20,000 national and community leaders in Honduras and El Salvador between 1984 and 1990.

Following the Sandinista takeover of Nicaragua in July, 1979, Rev. Moon inaugurated VOC activities in Latin America under the auspices of CAUSA International, the name used beginning in 1980 for the IFVOC organization in the West. Under the leadership of Dr. Bo Hi Pak, CAUSA developed a state-of-the-art audio-visual presentation of VOC theory, and throughout the 1980's it conducted hundreds of seminars in Latin America for political, military and civic leaders. It set up branch offices in the Caribbean (the Dominican Republic), the Southern Cone (Uruguay), and in Central America (Honduras). Between 1983 and 1987, CAUSA's Central American office alone conducted over 120 seminars, for more than 10,000 political leaders, scholars, military officers, teachers, students and campesinos. At the request of the Salvadoran government and with their support, CAUSA's Central American director, Mr. Jesus Gonzalez, frequently penetrated the lines of Salvadoran guerrilla (FMLN)-controlled territory to conduct seminars on VOC theory for local residents.

Dr. Bo Hi Pak, President of CAUSA International
In the 1980's CAUSA International also developed a significant presence in North America and in Europe. Between 1980 and 1990, CAUSA International conducted more than 250 VOC conferences in 40 nations, mostly three- and four-day programs, attended by an estimated 60,000 leaders. These programs mobilized the support and involvement of presidents, vice presidents, cabinet officers, senators and other high-ranking officials. From as early as 1982, CAUSA USA, CAUSA France, CAUSA Uruguay and other national chapters also organized and conducted many of their own conferences. By 1985, CAUSA conferences were even secretly being conducted in Nicaragua and Poland.

c. VOC Activities in America
While many of CAUSA's worldwide activities had important implications, it is particularly appropriate to highlight some of the initiatives taken in the United States. Rev. Moon's American VOC activities began with the creation of the Freedom Leadership Foundation (FLF) in 1969. Functioning primarily out of Washington, D.C., FLF conducted seminars on Marxism and organized rallies and demonstrations exposing and denouncing human rights violations occurring behind the Iron Curtain. The FLF published texts critical of communism and created a bi-weekly newspaper, The Rising Tide, which was widely distributed and read by members of Congress and their staff. Throughout the Vietnam conflict, the FLF steadfastly supported the American military presence in Vietnam.

Senator Richard Lugar
When President Reagan took office in 1981, there was a pervasive public attitude of resignation towards communism's long-term staying ability. American anticommunism itself had grown weak, defeated and scattered during the previous Ford and Carter administrations, and generally was portrayed negatively in the media.
40 Meanwhile, the Left actively promoted their positions, targeting universities, African-American and Latino communities, and various religious bodies, which often proved to be fertile ground for their efforts. It thus came as no surprise when President Reagan's Central American policy was openly challenged by these sectors, including the leaders of most U.S. mainline Protestant denominations. Such resistance hindered White House plans to rebuild America's military and face down Soviet expansionism.

During the 1980's, American VOC programs intensified, resulting in an interesting synergy between the educational foci of these programs (i.e., methods for responding to Soviet expansionism and ideology) and the strategic goals of the Reagan doctrine. Beginning early in the Reagan administration, Rev. Moon directed massive funds towards projects aimed at strengthening the American public's resolve against communism. CAUSA International and its affiliated projects, including the International Security Council and the American Leadership Conference, conducted hundreds of educational programs and conferences. They targeted a broad range of American opinion makers, including students and professors, journalists, religious leaders, military officers, national security experts, political leaders and grassroots activists.

Hon. Geraldine Ferraro, Democratic Candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1984
Initiated by Rev. Moon in 1983, CAUSA USA first organized VOC programs for American religious leaders, who were the prime targets of Leftist organizations such as CISPES (Citizens in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador) and Witness for Peace (a pro-Sandinista organization committed to stopping aid to the Nicaraguan contras). CAUSA USA described its central objectives as educating Americans about the dangers of atheistic communism in theory and practice, and as developing programs aimed at addressing social conditions which had permitted communism to take root. Between 1984 and 1986, over 70,000 Christian ministers heard the CAUSA critique of Marxism.
42 In 1985, CAUSA USA organized 27 national VOC conferences, each attended by 300-700 religious leaders, as well as an estimated 200 local programs for clergy.

CAUSA USA seminars had notable appeal in the African-American Christian community, a constituency which had not traditionally been pursued by organizations opposed to Marxism-Leninism. Dr. David N. Licorish, Publisher and Senior Editor of The Baptist, devoted an issue of that magazine to CAUSA and even chose to reprint Dr. Martin Luther King's sermon "Why a Christian Cannot Be a Communist."
43 Writing of his experience at a CAUSA seminar, Licorish noted CAUSA's ability to attract people of diverse ethnic and racial origins.44 Numerous prominent Civil Rights leaders such as Dr. Ralph Abernathy and Dr. James Bevel, a key strategist for Dr. Martin Luther King, also became active in CAUSA USA activities and often were featured speakers at their events.

CAUSA International reached out to one out of every five priests and ministers in the United States.

In 1985 CAUSA USA decided to expand its initiative to the general public. It launched a national signature drive, inviting Americans to sign a petition in support of the organization's efforts to educate Americans about the dangers of atheistic communism. Over 10 million Americans signed this petition, and these results were reported to the White House.

American political leaders were the focus of another organization offering VOC theory, the American Leadership Conference (ALC), founded in 1986 under the chairmanship of Amb. Phillip V. Sanchez, former U.S. Ambassador to Colombia and Honduras. This CAUSA International program provided a forum where legislators could explore and discuss international and domestic issues. However, the principal focus of the ALC program was to educate elected officials about Soviet military strategy and on the underlying tenets of Marxist-Leninist ideology, contrasting it with the historical and philosophical foundations of American democracy.

Aided by an invitational committee consisting of some 50 state legislators from throughout the United States and an advisory board of former diplomats, congressmen and governors, the ALC elicited a considerable response from American political leaders. By the end of 1990, over 10,000 had attended one of 30 national, three- to four-day anticommunism conferences.
45 Participants included around 100 current and former members of Congress, 130 mayors, more than 2,000 state legislators, many prominent federal and state officials, as well as university presidents and leaders of think tanks, grassroots organizations and private foundations. In addition to the CAUSA presentations on Marxism-Leninism, guest speakers added their views on American military strategy and domestic policy. ALC speakers included 25 members of Congress (e.g., Senators Jesse Helms, Al Gore and Richard Lugar, Congressman Henry Hyde) and other luminaries (e.g., Alan Bloom, Thomas Sowell, Mona Charon and Maureen Reagan). At most conferences, participants also heard presentations by those with an intimate experience of frontline Marxist-leaning states, including UNO (United Nicaraguan Opposition) leaders Pedro J. Chamorro Barrios, Arturo Cruz and Adolfo Calero, Nicaraguan Roman Catholic Church official Monsignor Bismarck Carballo, and American Indian Movement (AIM) leader Russell Means who shared his experiences with the Ramo, Sumo and Miskito resistance to Nicaragua's Sandinista government.

Dr. Ralph Abernathy greeting Senator Jesse Helms during an ALC conference.

Active and retired military officials were exposed to VOC theory under the aegis of the CAUSA International Military Association (CIMA). More than 800 retired high-ranking officials of the United States armed forces attended CAUSA presentations on VOC, including a sizeable number of America's retired four-star generals and full admirals.46 A number of those officers later played crucial roles in the formation of a grassroots, activist organization founded in 1987, known as the American Freedom Coalition (AFC). With opposition to Marxist-Leninist expansionism as one of its ten founding planks, AFC drew significant media attention on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution in November, 1987 when it organized rallies in all fifty states reminding Americans of the millions of men, women and children who had been senselessly eliminated in the Soviet Union, China, Cambodia and elsewhere in the name of communism.

Another organization initiated by CAUSA International, the International Security Council (ISC), gathered together strategists, diplomats, government officials, academics and former senior military officers to assess American military security and the relevance of diplomatic initiatives vis-a-vis the Soviet Union. During the latter years of the Cold War, ISC held 43 conferences, symposia and roundtables, published 39 position and research papers, and started an academic journal, Global Affairs. Chairing the symposia were national security and foreign affairs experts such as Eugene V. Rostow, Charles Lichenstein, Richard Perle and Richard Pipes.
47 ISC's strategic recommendations concurred with President Reagan's decision to strengthen America's strategic position through a substantial military build-up.

Rev. Moon's ministry on the university campus was carried out by the Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP), a Unification Church-related organization which became known during the 1980's for its rallies, publications and seminars countering communist expansion and Marxist ideology. CARP regularly countered CISPES demonstrations, which called for cutting off U.S. military support to El Salvador, and conducted its own rallies on campuses calling for an end of the Soviet and Cuban presence in El Salvador and Nicaragua.
48 The oppression of Solidarity in Poland was a focus of CARP rallies, as was the persecution of religious belivers in the USSR. High-profile KAL 007 protests by CARP were covered by print media such as Newsweek, USA Today, U.S. News and World Report, and The Philadelphia Inquirer and depicted in these publications as representative of America's outrage at the Soviet downing of a civilian Korean airliner resulting in 269 fatalities.49 CARP's organization of KAL 007 and other anti-Soviet demonstrations on colleges "from Columbia to Madison to Berkeley," led the Revolutionary Communist Party USA's newspaper, Young Spartacus, to describe CARP in one of its headlines as "Campus Shock Troops for Anti-Soviet War Drive."50

Rev. Moon's extensive educational initiatives on Marxism-Leninism undoubtedly strengthened the understanding of, and conviction against, communism in key sectors of American society: clergy, university students, political leaders, minority communities and scholars.
51 Such efforts, combined with the vocal rallies and demonstrations, would have helped to expand the base of public support for Ronald Reagan's foreign policy.

Lee Shapiro, award-winning CAUSA film maker in Nicaragua. Mr. Shapiro was killed by Soviet soldiers inside Afghanistan in October, 1987.
Reinforcing these programs were many films, videos and multi-media presentations on Marxism. For example, human rights violations inside Nicaragua gained greater visibility due to the efforts of Lee Shapiro, a CAUSA International associate. At great personal risk, Shapiro traveled with the Nicaraguan Resistance forces. He filmed, wrote, produced, and directed the award-winning documentary entitled Nicaragua was our Home, which captured on film testimonies of the atrocities committed by the Sandinistas against the Miskito Indians. The documentary was aired nationally by PBS (which made the highly irregular demand for a rap-around pointing out the filmmaker's ties to CAUSA International). It was also previewed at the White House on June 28, 1985, and President Reagan personally commended Shapiro for his work.
52 CARP also produced a full length film entitled El Salvador: Revolution and Romance, which highlighted the Marxist-Leninist ties of the FMLN.53 Such educational efforts helped the general public to understand the ideological bankruptcy of communism, the duplicity of the Marxist appeal for human rights, and the real threat of Soviet expansionism.