Essays Toward A Principled Economics
Mose Durst Ph.D.
2. Principled Economics and Benchmarking
The Missing Element
Numerous critics of the American economy, from Lester Thurow to Ross Perot, emphasize the need for a highly skilled, educated, and flexible workforce if the United States is to be competitive in the 21st century. The quality of its workers, they point out, will make for the competitive edge our nation has over another. Very few of these critics, however, acknowledge the fundamentally more important needs: the ethical, cultural, and character component of this trained workforce. It is almost as if the economic gurus of our time want our workers to be the best machines for the future. If they could score higher grades on math and science exams in school, if they could tackle the technology of the new industries of the future, and if they could be more flexible in job capabilities, then surely America would successfully compete with its rivals. Little vision is offered for the quality of life generated within the work environment. Even less vision is offered for how a business, or the larger economic system, can provide a model of a humane way of life for employees or the larger culture. Principled Economics, while reaffirming that the quality of the workforce is an essential component for a successful economy, addresses the root questions of what kind of person and what kind of society should be the goals of economic activity.
The principled economic vision, in essence, affirms that the purpose of all cultural activity is to cultivate the virtuous person for a virtuous society. Such is the basis for a healthy and prosperous civilization. Although economic activity focuses on the elements of material prosperity, such prosperity can be generated only in a virtuous society, one with healthy cultural norms and ethics. The economic enterprise, moreover, must strengthen the ethical fabric of such societies if there is to be economic productivity. The well-being of the person, the family, the community, and the environment are intertwined with the well-being of any economic enterprise. Economic productivity and prosperity are important goals, but they must be achieved while addressing the more complex goals of the healthy person within the healthy society.
The Core of Culture
The theologian Paul Tillich has explained that religion, our fundamental beliefs about the nature of reality, is the core of culture. Culture, says Tillich, expresses itself as the forms of our religious beliefs. Economic activity, like artistic or scientific activity, is a form of culture that is ultimately connected to a religious worldview. If, for example, we in the West are grounded primarily in a Judeo-Christian worldview, then our economic activity should express the ethics, values, and ideals of such religions. We have explained in the previous essay on Principled Economics that the ideal person embodying Judeo-Christian norms should be loving, ethical, and sacrificial. Such a person, created in the image of God (the fundamental belief of Judaism and Christianity), would seek to draw out the divine value from himself, others, and the environment. He would exhibit the caring, creative, committed, and sacrificial love exhibited by Jesus, St. Francis, and the virtuous saints of history. We have the responsibility to create such persons in all areas of cultural life and then to emulate those who are the best. What is true for cultural life in general is also true in the arena of economic creativity.
Our challenge is to have a vision for culture rooted in the most profound religious ideals and then to have a vision for economic activity which best expresses such ideals. The standards and goals of our economic life must be as high as those for any other area of culture. We must, however, identify the unique vision for economic enterprise, the companies which most realize the vision, and the leaders who best espouse and embody the vision. In such a way we can make more substantial the concept of Principled Economics. Certainly, by identifying the best we can avoid the worst, and we can provide models of individuals and companies that can be strengthened in their work as they strengthen others.
Principled Economics, then, seeks to identify and promote economic behavior which contributes to human wellbeing, the virtuous person and the virtuous society, while simultaneously creating material wealth. To what extent and where, we will ask, does economic life, business and the little world of the company contribute to those goals? Who are the principled leaders who contribute to the material, cultural and spiritual wellbeing of society? In this age of the anti-hero, of multi-million dollar athletes of dubious leadership qualities, of TV talk-show hosts discussing every manner of perverse behavior, can we offer young people images of economic and business leaders who are models of virtue as well as examples of entrepreneurial or technical genius? Are there companies that not only do well but do good, and are therefore worthy of our life-commitment, dedication, and loyalty?
If economic activity is characterized by un-principled actions by individuals and companies that seek to benefit narrow interests at the expense of the common good, then vice dominates all cultural life, and we will prosper neither materially nor spiritually. It is important for us to look at some of this vicious behavior in economic life and the catastrophic results for only then can we fully understand the importance of virtue and its overwhelming contribution to culture.
Finally, as we identify principled economic activity and describe the consequences of un-principled behavior, we are ready for a re-ordering process. Without a vision of the good society, nations perish - and economies along with them.
Benchmarking is a term that has become current in the literature of modern management theory and in the practice of major corporations. Lester Thurow, the Dean of the Sloan Management School at M.I.T., in a recent book describes benchmarking thusly:
Find those in the world that are the best at each aspect of economic performance. Measure your performance against theirs. Understand why they are better. Set yourself the target of first equaling, and then surpassing, their performance.l
Thurow's concept, as he develops it in his book, focuses on the skills and education of the workforce. We must, however, extend his sense of benchmarking to include -- and to emphasize -- the companies with philosophies, mission statements, leaders and practices that embody a Principled Economics ideal.
A company's philosophy, as expressed in its mission statement, if taken seriously will give coherence, purpose, and direction to the people and practices which are identified with the company. Obviously, a company, like an individual, may profess noble ideals as the guiding purpose of life, yet in no way act in consistent relation to those ideals. This happens all too frequently, as evidenced by slick corporate public relations departments churning out positive images. Nevertheless, the expression of one's ideals allows us to identify standards by which a company or an individual wishes to be accountable. Part of the process of benchmarking is to identify those companies which at least profess the ideals of Principled Economics. We find, moreover, that some of the most successful companies, those on most lists of "the best companies to work for," do indeed set forth noble principles in their mission statements and then act in accordance with those ideals.
Among the lists of the most respected, admired, and responsible larger corporations in America, one usually finds such names as Johnson & Johnson, Levi Strauss, Hewlett Packard, IBM, and Motorola. In the mission statements of these organizations, and in the corporate practices, one finds an emphasis on mutual respect between management and workers; opportunities for participation by workers in significant management decisions; and service by the corporation to the local community and the larger society. Motorola, for instance, has initiated Motorola University for the training of its employees, and it has institutionalized the concept of "Total Quality Management" to ensure the best quality of its products for the consumer.
Johnson & Johnson, a Fortune 500 company, is usually acknowledged to be one of the finest corporate citizens in America, a company with a conscience, one whose ideals genuinely guide its policies and practices, one whose behavior in the celebrated Tylenol situation clearly revealed its commitment to the common good over its immediate self-interest. Let us examine its corporate philosophy and behavior in relation to the Tylenol episode as an example of Principled Economics.
The Johnson & Johnson "credo" is a striking example of a company that honestly proclaims that its primary commitment is to the welfare of the human community (only toward the end of the "credo" does it talk about company profitability): "We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses, and patients, to the mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services..."2 Such a statement, if taken seriously as a guide for policy, will have enormous implications for the treatment of employees, the quality of production, the ethics of advertising, the responsibility toward the health of consumers, and a host of other areas. Indeed, almost immediately following the above statement in the "credo" is one emphasizing that the company must respect the "dignity" of its employees. "We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfill their family responsibilities." Further, "We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work and to the world community as well..." Only at the end of the "credo" do we find the statement: "Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound profit..."
From the viewpoint of Principled Economics, the ordering of priorities is largely correct. The company seeks to serve the common good, the welfare of the human community, and upon this foundation it is entitled to profit. Profit is necessary. It allows the company to survive, to fulfill its purpose of service, to support its employees, and to re-invest in more productive processes. There is nothing ignoble about the "credo;" it is a statement of high ideals, worthy of commitment, dedication, and loyalty. The "credo" has proved indispensable during the prudent application of these ideals under conditions of extreme severity.
Applications of the Corporate "Credo"
In 1982, at a time when Tylenol was perhaps the leading pain-reliever product in America, a criminal laced Tylenol capsules with cyanide and seven people were killed. In immediate response to this tragedy, Johnson & Johnson recalled tens of millions of dollars worth of Tylenol from grocery shelves without pressure from the FDA, and initiated an extensive process of testing and re-packaging in tamper-proof containers. "The company-wide 'credo challenge' made us more sensitive to our responsibilities," says former Johnson & Johnson chairman and CEO James Burke. "By the time the Tylenol issue hit, credo thinking was institutionalized.3
One could argue that the most profitable companies could afford to be socially responsible; yet, many have argued that socially responsible companies are more likely to be profitable. Johnson & Johnson's actions in the Tylenol case, indeed, helped them regain their market share almost completely in a very short period of time. Most important for us to consider, however, is how the vision as expressed in the "credo" statement became the actual operating procedure of a virtuous corporate culture. Such a culture brought genuine virtue and pride to the members of the corporation, and thus became a model of responsibility and virtue for the larger culture. Principled Economics, then, does not seek to identify strategies that can enhance the public affairs image of a company. Rather, it defines and benchmarks those ideals and practices that contribute to the building of a virtuous person and a virtuous culture.
Levi Strauss & Company, another of the most admired and profitable companies in America, prides itself on its "Aspirations Statement." The statement emphasizes the great importance of valuing each person: "We want our people to feel respected, treated fairly, listened to, and involved. Above all, we want satisfaction from accomplishment and friendships, balanced personal and professional lives, and to have fun in our endeavors."4 The company sends out extensive questionnaires to its employees in seeking to make the work environment a means to strengthen family life. Further, as CEO Robert Haas explains, he wants each employee to "think about what kind of person you want to be in the workplace and what kind of legacy you want to leave behind."5 Employees just happen, then, to be very creative and productive in the workplace, and there is enormous voluntary commitment to community service.
When Haas was asked how a CEO manages for values, he responded:
The first responsibility for me and my team is to examine critically our own behavior and management styles in relation to the behaviors and values that we profess and to work to become more consistent with the values that we are articulating. It's tough work. We all fall off the wagon. But you can't be one thing and say another. People have unerring detection for fakes, and they won't put up with them. They won't put values into practice if you're not.
From Levi Strauss' Aspirations Statement, Johnson & Johnson's "credo," and Motorola University, we know that they are companies driven by vision, values, and purpose as well as, if not beyond, profit.
Many of the successful smaller companies in America are in the forefront of what has come to be called "caring capitalism." This term is often used in reference to companies such as Ben and Jerry's, the ice cream company that began with two friends in 1978 and now generates sales of over $150 million. Jerry Greenfield, one of the founders, explains: "Most businesses say leave your values at the door, then go home and be a human being by doing community work, church work...We're saying you should be doing something at work, at precisely the time when you are most powerful."6 Aside from the quality of "caring" relations in the workplace, the company seeks to practice social responsibility in the following ways:
Ben pushed flavors like Chocolate Fudge Brownie, the brownies in which are made by unemployed and homeless people ('under-skilled persons', the company calls them) in Yonkers, New York; Wild Maine Blueberry, made with blueberries harvested by the Passamaquaddy Indians of Maine; and Rainforest Crunch, made with a Brazilian nut candy to discourage deforestation. (In addition, sixty percent of the candy profits are given to environmental and other groups.)
Interviews with employees at Ben and Jerry's largely reflect what we would expect from a healthy company: highly motivated people who believe in the ideals of the company, a loyal workforce, hardworking, creative individuals who feel that their full human value is drawn out through the work experience. Many of the employees at Ben and Jerry's, like the founders themselves, grew up in America at a time when they had little faith in the profit-making nature of a capitalist system. Like Paul Goodman's classic book describing such a system, they believed they were Growing Up Absurd. Now, however, they believe that by giving new purpose to such a system they can live the good life and contribute to the good society.
Companies are largely reflective of their leadership's political and moral philosophies. Therefore, corporations could be identified as conservative /mainstream (like IBM, Procter & Gamble, Hewlett Packard), or liberal/new age (like Ben & Jerry's), or some combination. It is in the context of the company's political and moral philosophy that the promotion of strategies and policies, whether correct or incorrect, takes place to advance the "virtuous" person and company. As individuals and as corporate citizens, the leaders of such companies are promoting the classical ideal of virtue: private well-being derived in service to the public good. Augustine explained that virtue is the order of love. As love seeks the benefit, welfare, and happiness of the other, centered on a Godly ideal of the good, so virtue is the active, lawful, and beautiful practice of such an ideal. In friendship, marriage, or economic life the ideal and the practice remain the same for a healthy culture. A healthy corporate culture is a healthy ethical culture as it seeks to promote the ideal of the virtuous person and the virtuous society.
Failures within the System
To speak, however, of businesses contributing to a life of virtue is to bring a derisive smile to the faces of many who experience the daily reality of life in the corporate world. Amitai Etzioni, the respected sociologist, indicates: "My own study of the Fortune 500 found that 62 percent were involved in one or more incidents of corrupt behavior -- these included price-fixing, environmental and anti-trust violations, bribery, and fraud -- during the period between 1975 and 1984."7 Let us remember that these are the "best" corporations. And because of a few highly publicized cases involving Michael Milken, Ivan Boesky and Charles Keating, as well as the fictitious Gordon Gekko of the film "Wall Street" saying "greed is good," a good part of the American public categorizes the 1980s as "the decade of greed." Whether the label is accurate or not, many people feel that business is the first arena to look for wealth, but the last in which to seek virtue.
Workers, too, have had their fill of abuse in the workplace. Perhaps part of the difficulty General Motors has experienced is due to workers who feel demoralized. Deborah Wikaryasz, a line worker at a Cadillac plant, reports about "the back-stabbing and the yelling and the things I've seen."8
Employee Martin Douglas, also at General Motors, explains how the apparent lack of understanding between labor and management stems from management's total failure to see its hourly workers as anything more than another labor-producing machine...The assembly line worker is the lowest man in the company hierarchy and seems to be tolerated as a necessary evil. The contract between labor and management more closely resembles an armistice than a treaty for mutual benefit.9
A recent book offers a series of horror stories about how employees will seek revenge upon a business that makes them feel abused, pressured, or unfulfilled. Sabotage in the American Workplace10 relates how workers will steal, destroy, or misuse the goods they work with, in petty and flagrant ways, in order to undermine a workplace in which, as one employee described it, "I was treated like dung." Those of us who visited the former Soviet Union experienced the surly attitude of clerks in stores and waiters in restaurants. The resentment such people felt about the economic system of communism was reflected in the common joke, "They pretend to pay us, and we pretend to work." What was not pretense was the hostility toward anyone participating in the vicious system. Certainly, if the fall of communism teaches us anything, it is that human beings must realize genuine human fulfillment in their economic activities or they will do everything in their power to destroy such a system. The free market system of the West does not mirror-image communism, but there are elements in such a system which vitiate the possibilities of a virtuous life:
The relentless pressures to survive in our society are demanding. Keyed to self-interest and paranoid feelings, they condition us to (1) look out for number one; (2) break promises when expedient; (3) trust no one; (4) hide personal errors; (5) win and retain power by any means; (6) subvert the law; (7) suppress generosity; (8) affix a price on everyone and everything; and (9) stress loyalty over truth.11
America may be the only remaining superpower, and the world may still crave American pop culture, but are we exporting products for a profit at the expense of civilized norms? The great hoopla to promote Madonna's new book Sex illustrates to what depths a major corporation in the "education" and "entertainment" industry will go to generate wealth. From reviews of the book we are told of sadistic sex pornography: photographs of a nude Madonna with knives, whips, and - according to one reviewer -- "an unsheathed stiletto being pressed against Madonna's private parts." Is this the role to which we hope our daughters will aspire? In another area of pop culture, a reviewer of the film "Ladies' Room" comments: It is a "locker-room joke in a dress... it's about as perfect an example of bathroom humor as I've seen, and written by a woman, too -- a giant leap downstairs for womankind." And even Carl Bernstein of Watergate investigative fame, in reviewing our media, writes of "The Idiot Culture": "In this new culture of journalistic titillation, we teach our readers and our viewers that the trivial is significant, that the lurid and the loopy are more important than real news. We do not serve our readers and viewers, we pander to them."12
Cultures can encourage either virtue or vice, civilized norms or uncivilized barbarism, sacred love or profane love, honesty or corruption. Much of the dilemma of economic development in Latin America, for example, has been attributed to the unwillingness of investors to place their money in the hands of those they fear are corrupt. If judicial systems do not protect investors, investment will flee. Capital flight itself, where local investors choose to place their money in other places than their native country, indicates a fundamental mistrust in the honesty, probity, and soundness of an economic and cultural system. It is common sense to observe that a violation of ethical norms will destroy the very possibility of a healthy economic system - and of a healthy culture.
The Virtuous Person and a Healthy Economy
If a healthy economic system is dependent upon a healthy culture, such a culture must be characterized by a commitment to a common good, for such is the ultimate benchmarking. What institutions, then, are primarily responsible for defining and promoting this common good? Historically, it is religion in the area of culture which defines primary values, the family, school, and religious organization being the virtue-forming institutions which teach the young to embody such values. We have argued, along with many others, that a healthy free-market economic system can only function in the context of sound religious, ethical, and cultural ideals. Conservative writers like George Gilder, Irving Kristol, Michael Novak, and Richard Neuhaus warn that all of these primary institutions are under serious attack, and are no longer able to define or promote an ideal of the common good. This failure, they believe, is the most serious threat to the American economy and culture. Consequently, they exhort the public to renew institutions based on classical religious and ethical ideals.
Robert Reich, a former Harvard professor and new secretary of labor in the Clinton administration, along with Lester Thurow and Ray Marshall, have advocated that "the true sources of wealth are the accrued skills of the work force and the quality of the social and material infrastructure supporting them."13 So, there is recognition that the "social infrastructure" must be renewed, although this is rarely spelled out very clearly. Marshall, a former secretary of labor under President Carter, has gone further than most "liberal" commentators on the economy in explaining the importance of the family, school, and community in relation to a productive economy.l4
These institutions, Principled Economics emphasizes, must train young people in virtue and character development based on classical religious ideals if there is to be any strength to "social infrastructure" or any hope for a healthy economy, not to speak of a sound culture. Michael Novak explains the need of the larger culture: "A cultural ethos inculcating in every citizen the need for acquisition of virtue, the imperatives of self-control and self-mastery, and the moral obligation to assume responsibility for the painstaking shaping of one's own character..."15 Richard Neuhaus would add, "The free market cannot produce the virtuous society that the economy itself requires. That is the task of culture and, most particularly, of morality and religion."16
A number of writers would argue that it is impossible to reconcile the fundamental motivation behind capitalism, which they see as self-interest, with the idea of a virtuous society or a common good. Perhaps there is an underlying guilt among a majority of people who participate in a free-market system that profit is in itself ignoble. Certainly, in popular culture (such as television and films) business people are not usually presented in a virtuous, noble, or heroic light. One religious scholar in a recent book speaks what many people must feel: "...our whole economic system is based on the idea that a private evil can create a public good; that avarice (the profit motive) creates wealth and thereby happiness."17
Such a view of a free-market system would remove legitimization from the system itself and would disempower anyone functioning within it. It would offer very little vision for the millions of young people who seek careers in some area of the business world.
Principled Economics strongly disagrees that the profit motive equates with avarice and that it is the sole or primary motivation of economic activity. We have illustrated how the best corporations are motivated by missions that seek to serve the public good and the recognition that one must create wealth (profit) in order to do this. Our responsibility is to help individuals, corporations, and all of us who participate in every aspect of economic life to make choices that serve the common good while contributing to the virtuous life.
If we are to benchmark and take note of those who offer a vision for economic life as well as those who have been very successful in practicing their vision, we can find few better than Paul Hawken. In 1966 Hawken founded Erewhorn, a successful model for many natural-foods companies. In 1979 he established Smith & Hawken, the highly successful garden and horticulture catalog company. Hawken's philosophy is about as far away from avariciousness as one can imagine. He writes:
We lead by being human. We do not lead by being corporate, by being professional, or by being institutional ....We need a new bill of rights, a commercial bill of rights, that sets priorities and establishes principles that people believe are fair and universal ....The right to create products and participate in processes that do not harm others. Simply that: that do not harm others.18
Hawken goes on to enumerate other rights, all of which point to a common good. The products sold by Smith & Hawken are known to be ecologically sound, of high quality, and the service to the customer is excellent. The success of the specific company is very much rooted in a principled approach to profit, or wealth creation, a form of creativity like any other, one that focuses on self in service to others.
Business and the Best of Culture
The company then is a little world, one which establishes norms to support a virtuous person and a virtuous society or fails to do so. If it is the responsibility of the larger culture to provide business with the source of its ethical norms, business must in turn reinforce the best of culture. A principled economic culture will help develop people who act in principled ways as they exhibit intellectual and moral virtue. As with the Tylenol example, once there is a high standard of virtue institutionalized within a corporate culture, the likelihood of individuals acting for the greatest good - even under severe pressure -- is very high. If we wish to benchmark companies, business leaders, or more general economic policies, we need to identify not narrow practices but the most completely ethical communities which contribute the greatest good to the larger human community.
Principled Economics represents a vision of the future for the world of business, industry, and commerce. It is grounded in the classical religious and ethical ideals of virtue which offer us a framework for a healthy culture. If, as Aristotle taught, we learn virtue by imitating the actions of good people, then businesses are meant to be schools of virtue as well as counting houses. Lester Thurow may emphasize that the quality of the work force is the only strategic weapon in the 21st century, but we would add that such quality is largely that of character, rather than technical competence alone. Principled systems and principled behavior, upon which foundation we need technical training, will make our nation more competitive and productive in the future.
Further, we need to benchmark the best (most virtuous) families, schools, and communities as they contribute to a healthy economy. "In the end, no public economic policy will work, and the market by itself will not return us to a level of economic activity that can sustain our competitiveness, unless we get our moral/social house in order."19 If ethics is the order of love, the ordering principle of culture and thus of business, religious and cultural leaders need to help business leaders in understanding and performing their ethical responsibilities. The cultural elite must move away from using business and business leaders as subjects of ridicule. Business leaders, for their part, must understand their responsibility in contributing to the ethical well-being of the larger culture.
Principled Economics is a vision not just for America but for the global culture of the future. There must be both competition and cooperation between countries and companies, yet there must be a profound ethical vision of the good life within which this economic activity takes place. Hans Kung, the Catholic theologian, has called for cooperation among the world's religions if there is to be world peace. In his book Global Responsibility, 20 he calls for dialogue among the religions so that a universal ethics can be agreed upon. We see the need for such a global ethics if there is to be a healthy global economy, not just one for the most developed nations. Religion cannot give us specific answers to particular economic problems. Only prudence can do this. The greatest religious traditions, however, can offer us a profound understanding of the meaning and purpose of human life. Ultimately, economic activity must be consistent with our deepest human values.
1. Lester Thurow, Head to Head. The Coming Economic Battle Among Japan, Europe and America (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1992), p. 250.
2. Reprinted in Oliver F. Williams and Patrick E. Murphy, "The Ethics of Virtue: A Moral Theory for Business," from same editors, A Virtuous Life in Business (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992), p. 14.
3. Quoted in Business Ethics, November/ December 1989 (V. 3, No. 4), p. 23.
4. Robert Howard, "Values Make the Company: An Interview with Robert Haas," Ethics at Work (Cambridge: A Harvard Business Review Paperback; 1991), pp. 55-66.
6. Robert E. Sullivan, Jr., "Just Desserts," Rolling Stone (July 9-23, 1992), p. 75-79.
7. Amitai Etzioni, "The Moral Foundation of the Market," The World and 1 (December 1990), p. 472.
8. Reported in Business Week (August 17, 1992), p. 88.
9. Tad Tuleja, Beyond the Bottom Line (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1985), p. 58.
10. Martin Sprouse, Sabotage in the American Workplace (San Francisco: Pressure Drop Press, 1992).
11. C. Samuel Calian, "Religious Roots and Business Practices: Vignettes from Life," in A Virtuous Life in Business, eds. Oliver F. Williams and John W. Houck (Lanham, MD.: Rowham & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 1992), p. 76.
12. Carl Bernstein, "The Idiot Culture," This World (July 20, 1992), pp. 711.
13. Robert B. Reich, "The Real Economy," The Atlantic Monthly (February 1991), p. 35.
14. Ray Marshall and Marc Tucker, Thinking for a Lining: Work, Skills and the Future of the American Economy (New York: Basic Books, 1992).
15. Michael Novak, Character and Crime (Notre Dame, Indiana: Brownson Institute, 1986), pp. 70-71.
16. Richard John Neuhaus, "An Argument About Human Nature," in George Weigel, ed. A New wordly Order (Washington, DC: The Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992), p. 127.
17. Peter Kreeft, Back to Virtue (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1992), p. 111.
18. Paul Hawken, "The Ecology of Commerce," Inc (April 1, 1992), p. 98.
19. Amitai Etzioni, "American Competitiveness: The Moral Dimensions," The World and 1 (October 1991), p. 473.
20. Hans Kung, Global Responsibility (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1991).
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