Orthodox -- Unification Dialogue -- Constantine N. Tsirpanlis Editor 1981

The Orthodox View of Salvation -- Constantine Cavarnos

"The end of your faith," we read in the New Testament, "is the salvation of your souls."1 This view has guided the actions of the Saints of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Speaking of the Fathers who attained perfection, Saint Ephraim the Syrian (306-c. 378) remarks that "they had only one thought, one concern, how to gain salvation."2 But what is salvation, according to the teaching of the Orthodox Church? Who can attain salvation? And what are the necessary conditions and means for attaining it? These are the questions I shall attempt to answer.

"Salvation" (soteria) is a term that appears often in Holy Scripture, in the writings of the Eastern Fathers, and in the hymnography of the Church. In Scripture, the meaning of the word "salvation" is not explained. It has to be gathered from the contexts in which it appears. When one reads the passages of the New Testament in which the word "salvation" appears, it becomes evident that it is used in two senses. Sometimes it is used to denote deliverance from some danger or from destruction involving the body.3 At other times, it is used to denote deliverance from misery consequent upon sin, and entry into the eternal life of blessedness in the kingdom of God. Usually, the word salvation is used in the second sense. Salvation in this sense is spoken of as "eternal salvation" (soteria aionios), 4 and the "salvation of souls" (soteria psychon).5 Its supreme importance for the Christian is indicated by characterizing it as "the final end" (telos) of his faith, 6 and hence one which he must work out "with fear and trembling."7

In the writings of the Fathers and hymnographers of the Orthodox Church, it is generally assumed that one knows what salvation is; and hence the concern is not to explain what it is, but rather to teach how it is to be attained. By salvation, in these writings, almost always is meant salvation of the soul. This is particularly noticeable in hymnody: quite often hymns end as prayers for its salvation. The following troparion from one of the liturgical books, the Pentekostarion, is an example:

O Heavenly King, Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, Who art present everywhere and filleth all things, the treasure of the virtuous, and the provider of life; come, and dwell in us, and cleanse us of every stain, and save, O Good One, our souls.8

The essence of the Patristic conception of salvation is given in the following verses of Saint Symeon the New Theologian (949-1022), one of the greatest Orthodox mystics:

Salvation is deliverance from all evils, And finding eternally in the Savior all blessings.9

This is identical with the view that we find in the New Testament. Negatively, salvation is deliverance from all evils; positively, it is finding complete and everlasting fulfillment in union with God. The positive dimension of salvation is described by Saint Symeon in a hymn which has the title: That those who already in this life are united with God through participation in the Holy Spirit, when they depart from this life will thenceforward be together with Him unto all ages. Saint Symeon says in this hymn:

Those who are from here united with God will then also Be mystically united with Him, and will genuinely Exist in inseparable participation in Him... Christ has said that those alone will be saved who participate In His Divinity, as He, the Creator of all things, Came to participate in our nature... Assuredly, Paradise, and the bosom of Abraham, And every place of repose is for the saved, And all the saved are assuredly saints, As all Divine Scripture testifies and teaches... For Paradise, and the Holy City, And every place of repose is in God alone. For just as a man does not have rest in this life, If he does not abide in God, and God in Him, So also after death, outside of Him, I believe there is no rest, there is no place free of sorrow, Free of sighs, free of affliction. Let us strive, therefore, my brethren, before the end, To attach ourselves to God, the Creator of all things.10

This explanation of the nature of salvation is clearly consonant with many statements in the New Testament. Thus, in the Acts of the Apostles, we read: "And there is salvation in no one else..." other than Jesus Christ.11 In the Second Epistle to Timothy, Saint Paul says: "Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory."12 And in his Epistle to the Hebrews, Paul says that Christ"... became the source of eternal salvation unto all who obey Him."13

To the question, Who can attain salvation? the Eastern Church Fathers answer that everyone can. Thus, Saint John Climacos, who flourished during the first half of the seventh century, says: "It is not possible for all to become passionless; but it is not impossible for all to be saved, and be reconciled to God."14 And Saint Peter Damascene, who flourished in the next century, remarks: "Every man who wants to be saved can be prevented by no one, nor can he be prevented by the time, the place, or any force."15 It is necessary, however, he adds, that one do everything with discrimination, in accordance with this Divine aim.

That God has arbitrarily predestined some to salvation and others to perdition is a view which is alien to the teaching of the Orthodox Church. God's will, being all-good, is not an obstacle to anyone's salvation. Paul says, in his First Epistle to Timothy, that God "... desires all men to be saved..."16 This statement is part of the Orthodox teaching. The obstacles to salvation come not from God, but from man himself. What are the main obstacles? According to Saint Antony the Great (c. 250-356), the leader of the monastics, "there is no obstacle to him who wants to be saved except negligence (ameleia) and spiritual indolence (rhathymia psyches).17

John Climacos singles out despair (apognosis) as an obstacle to salvation, saying: "Just as it is impossible for a dead man to walk, so it is impossible for a despairing man to be saved."18

God, as we said, offers no obstacle to man's salvation. On the contrary, He offers strengthening grace to those who strive to attain it. Such grace is a necessary condition for the attainment of salvation. Without it, man cannot be saved. Orthodoxy rejects the Pelagian heresy of man's self-sufficiency; it rejects the view that man can save himself with his own unaided efforts. Christ says: "... Without me ye can do nothing."19 Quite in keeping with this, Orthodox writers stress the role of Divine grace in man's salvation. Thus, Saint Theodore, Bishop of Edessa (seventh century), remarks: "The whole of our salvation rests upon God's mercy and love for man."20 And Saint Symeon Metaphrastes (tenth century) observes: "By the Divine grace bestowed by the Spirit each one of us gains salvation."21 Again, Nikephoros Theotokis, eminent Greek theologian of the eighteenth century, says: "Do you desire the salvation of your soul? Have hope in God for it. Believe unhesitatingly that He is the Savior of our souls, that He can save us."22 And again, his younger contemporary, Saint Nicodemos the Hagiorite, tells us that "without the action and help of the Holy Spirit men cannot be saved, because, according to David, 'Salvation belonged! unto the Lord,'23 and to no one else. Hence, the fount, principle, and cause of salvation -- of eternal salvation -- is the Holy Spirit."24 Countless similar passages by others could be cited.

But while recognizing and stressing the Divine factor, God's grace, Orthodox Christianity also recognizes and emphasizes the human factor, the role that man himself must play for his salvation. It thus avoids the two opposed extreme positions: that of Pelagius, on the one hand, who teaches that man can attain salvation without the help of Divine grace, entirely through his own efforts, and that of the later Augustine and of Calvin on the other, who teach that salvation is entirely a matter of Divine grace. Pelagius' view rested on his denial of ancestral sin -- called in the Western Church "original sin" -- and hence of hereditary taint, while the Augustinian and Calvinist view is based on the supposition that ancestral sin has resulted in extreme depravity. Orthodoxy takes seriously the Scriptural teaching of ancestral sin, of the fall, and teaches that as a result of the fall men are born with their natural powers in a corrupt state. However, their corruption, it holds, is not extreme: it rejects the doctrine of total depravity. Man in his fallen state retains enough goodness and freedom to be able to initiate the process of his own salvation. Man has the power of free choice and a certain amount of self-control. This freedom is inviolate in the sight of God. Hence, God awaits upon man to begin the process of his salvation. Thus, in the Prophet Zechariah we read: "Turn ye unto me, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will turn unto you..,"25 Similarly, in Malachi we read: "Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the Lord of Hosts."26 God does not exercise irresistible grace, does not save man willy-nilly, but leaves it to each one of us to make a start and orient himself towards Him.

Symeon Metaphrastes, whom I quoted earlier, says: "One is not deemed worthy of perfect progress through Divine grace and power alone, without contributing his own sweat. Nor again through his own endeavor and power alone, without the help from Above, does one arrive at the measure of perfect freedom and purity. For unless the Lord has built, it is said, and protects a city, the guard has been vigilant in vain, and likewise he who labored and built."27

The term "sweat" is used in this connection by Nicodemos the Hagiorite, too, who remarks: "From your sweat you will receive the longed-for salvation."28 By "sweat" he and Saint Symeon mean the various kinds of askesis that are used by the Orthodox, such as fasting, vigils, prostrations, self-control, inner attention, and prayer.

Another of the writers whom I have quoted in connection with the need of Divine grace, Nikephoros Theotokis, says: "The will of God alone does not suffice for the salvation of man; the contribution of the will of man also is necessary."29 He quotes the Gospel according to Saint John, "... All that are in the graves shall hear His voice [the voice of the Son of God] and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation."30 So Theotokis exhorts: "Let not your will remain idle and barren, but let it be active and fruitful. Cultivate love, humility, meekness, justice, self-control, chastity, truthfulness, keeping all the commandments of God. When these works are produced by your will, the righteousness and mercy of God will open for you the gate of the Heavenly Kingdom, in order that you might enter and enjoy in Christ the eternal glory and blessedness."31

The process of achieving salvation must, then, be initiated by man. He must perform certain acts, apply himself to certain practices. These acts and practices constitute what is called in sacred writings "the way of salvation." This way is taught in Scripture and is fully explained in the writings of the Fathers. In the Acts of the Apostles, for instance, we read that Paul and Silas "... show unto us the way of salvation (hodos soterias)."32 And in the Second Epistle to Timothy, we find this statement: "... The Holy Scriptures are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus."33 A man begins the process of his salvation by taking the trouble to acquaint himself with this teaching, to learn about the nature of the path of salvation, and then resolves to apply this teaching. As Maximos the Confessor (580-662) remarks, "the beginning and end of each one's salvation is wisdom. This gives rise, initially, to fear [of doing what is wrong, evil] and afterward, becoming perfected, it evokes aspiration."34 Similarly, Peter Damascene (fl. 775) says: "The beginning of every good is the natural knowledge that is given by God, or that of the Scriptures, given by Him through man, or through an angel.... After knowledge comes man's deliberate choice (proairesis). This is the beginning of salvation."35

The most important part of the knowledge or wisdom mentioned in Scripture and in the writings of these Fathers is the true conception of God and of man, and an understanding of the vices to be avoided or uprooted and of the virtues to be acquired, and of the means to be employed towards this end.

Having gained this knowledge through the spoken or the written word, one must assent to it, espouse it, and thereby undergo what is called conversion or repentance. This is a radical inward change of mind and hence of orientation in life, a change that manifests itself in one's conduct, in what we call one's life-style. For this reason, speaking of such initial repentance, Saint John Climacos says: "The beginning of repentance is the beginning of salvation; the beginning of salvation is good purpose; good purpose is the mother of efforts. The beginning of efforts is the beginning of the virtues; the beginning of the virtues is a flowering; the flowering of virtue is the beginning of spiritual work. And the offspring of persevering spiritual work is habit; and the child of habit is character."36 The first act of repentance, according to Peter Damascene is to renounce one's own desires and thoughts, and do the will of God.37

Besides wisdom or knowledge, above all in the sense of the virtue of faith -- by which is meant the awareness and acceptance of the content of Divinely revealed Christian teaching -- and besides repentance, salvation presupposes the acquisition of the rest of the virtues and the eradication of all the vices. The acquisition of the other virtues and the eradication of the vices, in turn, requires the use of certain practices. These I shall discuss later.

Among the other virtues that are regarded as especially important for achieving salvation are humility, patience, hope, self-control, and love.

Speaking of the relation of humility to salvation, John Climacos quotes Psalm 114:6 (Septuagint): "I became humble, and the Lord soon saved me." And he adds this comment: "Repentance lifts up [the fallen]; [spiritual] mourning knocks at [the gate of] Heaven, and holy humility opens it."38 In the Gospel we read that Jesus once called a little child and set him in the midst of His disciples, and said: "Verily I say unto you, except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of Heaven. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of Heaven."39

About the virtue of patience, we again have a very striking passage in the Gospel. Christ tells His disciples: "... He that endureth to the end shall be saved."40 The Greek word here for endureth is hypomeinas, which is better rendered as "is patient." Patience, according to Saint Ephraim the Syrian, protects one from negligence, which, as we have noted, is one of the main obstacles to salvation. "Blessed is he," remarks Ephraim, "who has not been overcome by the passion of negligence, as a coward, but has acquired perfect patience, through which all the saints received their crowns."41

The virtue of hope protects us from another of the main obstacles to salvation: despair. Hope is one of the three principal Christian virtues, the others being faith and love.42 Paul the Apostle speaks often of hope; but the following statement of his is especially pertinent to our topic: "We are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for? But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it."43 Chrysostom calls hope, in particular hope in God, a treasure "more valuable than any kind of jewel or source of wealth."44 For hope in God is, he says, "the sacred anchor," and he who possesses it remains "unshaken and immovable" in times of adversity45 John of Karpathos characterizes hope and the other virtues that I have spoken of as "instruments of salvation."46

Love is presented in the New Testament as the highest of the virtues and the most distinctive characteristic of true Christians. And it is so regarded by the Orthodox. Abba Philemon, one of the great ascetic mystical Fathers, excellently relates this virtue to salvation when he says: "God wants us to show eagerness for Him, first by our efforts, and afterward by love and unceasing prayer; and then He provides the way of salvation."47 In the following very remarkable passage, Maximos the Confessor asserts love to be a short-cut to salvation: "True love of God with knowledge, and in general the withholding of affection for the body and for worldly things, by the soul, is deliverance from all evils and a short path to salvation. By putting thus away the desire for pleasure and the fear of pain, we are freed from bad self-love, having risen to knowledge of the Creator. And having assumed, in place of evil self-love, spiritual self-love, separated from bodily affection, we cease not worshipping God through this good self-love, ever seeking from God the protection of the soul."48

The virtues are related to salvation not only in such specific ways as we have noted, but also in a general way, that of rendering man a likeness of God. Such likeness, according to the Greek Fathers, is a necessary condition for theosis, "deification," man's union with God, which in turn is a necessary condition for salvation. Thus, Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite says: "No one can be saved without first attaining theosis; and again, no one can attain theosis without first attaining likeness to God through the imitation of the Divine perfection as far as possible."49

In the Book of Genesis we read that God created man in His image and likeness. The fall resulted, according to some Western theologians -- such as Augustine in his later writings and Calvin -- in the shattering of the image, in man's extreme depravity. But the Orthodox view is that the image of God in man has not been shattered or completely distorted as a result of transgression. Man has retained the image of God within him, despite the fall, but has lost the faithful likeness of the image to the Prototype, to God. By freeing himself of bad tendencies and vices, and acquiring the virtues, man regains likeness to God. This is called apocatastasis, "restoration."

The distinction between "in the image" (kaf eikona) and "in the likeness" (kath' homoisin) is explained by Saint John Damascene (675-750) as follows: "Every man is in the image of God because of his possession of reason and of a soul which is incomprehensible, invisible, immortal, free, fit for rule, creative.... But very few men are in the likeness of God: only the virtuous and saints, who imitate God's goodness so far as is possible for man."50

"Likeness" is a very important stage in the path of salvation. It is a precondition of theosis, as I have already remarked.

In calling theosis union with God, Orthodox teaching does not mean that the human personality is absorbed into the Divine essence, resulting in the depersonalization of man and the loss of his individuality, as pantheistic mysticism teaches. The Divine essence is held to be inaccessible to man, and there is no question of his being absorbed into it. Union with God is union of man with the uncreated Divine energies, being "penetrated" by them. Thus "deified" or "divinized," man shares in the perfection, glory and blessedness of God. In this state, man retains his distinctness, memory, self-consciousness. His individuality, far from being lost, is enhanced, the soul achieving the fullest integration within itself.

Theosis it should be added, admits of degrees, depending on the capacity for receiving Divine grace, that is, on purity of soul. Perfection with respect to it is unattainable in this life.

That likeness is a precondition of theosis is taught by Antony the Great, Maximos the Confessor, Gregory Palamas, and other great Saints and Teachers. Antony says: "When we remain good, through likeness, we are united with God; when we become bad, through unlikeness, we are separated from God;"51 while Maximos observes: "He who has brought the body into harmony with the soul through virtue becomes, through purity of mind, an abode of the Logos."52 Gregory Palamas explains the reason for this as follows: "Since the Godhead is goodness itself, and in very deed mercy and an abyss of goodness,... one may become a recipient of its mercy through simple union with it. Now one attains union with it, so far as this is possible, by the communion of the virtues that have likeness to it, and by the communion of prayer and union with God. But while the communion through the virtues, through likeness, naturally renders the virtuous man fit to receive the Deity, it does not also unite, whereas the power of prayer accomplishes man's elevation and union with the Godhead, being a bond of rational creatures with their Creator."53

This discussion leads us to the next topic, that of the means where every man can attain likeness to God by purifying himself of all vices and "passions" and acquiring the virtues. These means include what the Orthodox call the Divine "Mysteries" (spoken of in the Western Church as "Sacraments"), and certain practices called by the Greek Fathers "work" (ergasia), of which there are two kinds: "bodily" and "mental."

I shall speak first of the Divine Mysteries, in particular of Baptism, Chrismation, and the Eucharist, referring to a book which is a classic on this subject: Nicholas Cavasilas' The Life in Christ. Cavasilas is an important Byzantine theologian, mystic and philosopher, who lived in the fourteenth century. The Mystery of Baptism, he observes, sets men free from sins -- of ancestral ("original") sin, and of personal sins, if one is an adult -- reconciles him to God, unites him with God, opens the eyes of the soul, and in a word prepares man for the life to come.54 Chrismation makes man a partaker of Christ, the Anointed One, procuring the gifts of godliness, prayer, love, sobriety, and others.55 The Eucharist which is the most perfect and greatest of the Sacraments, "releases men from guilt, purifies the soul from its evil state," and "binds man closer to Christ."56 The Eucharist is a necessary completion of Baptism and Chrismation, supplying perfection to them. "It comes to their aid, assisting the initiates after their initiation."57 It does so in this respect: As a man becomes distracted by worldly cares, grows indifferent to the inward treasure received through Baptism and Chrismation, and falls into sin, the grace which he received becomes obscured by the darkness of the passions and sins. It is uncovered and begins to operate in one's life through the Eucharist, which one should receive frequently, after due preparation through repentance and sincere confession.58

The bearing of these Sacraments on man's struggle to acquire likeness to God through purification and the acquisition of the virtues is obvious. They purify us of evil and impart to us Divine grace, which strengthens our effort to grow in virtue.

Let us see now what is the nature of the other means which I said lead to this same end: bodily and mental "work." Bodily work consists of fasting, vigils during which one stands, prostrations, reading, chanting, and other practices involving the body. Except for fasting, the practices just mentioned are actually psycho-physical, involving the psyche as well as the body. Thus, during vigils and the performances of prostrations, one prays. Chanting is itself a form of prayer. And reading obviously involves not only the bodily sense of sight, but also the mind. These practices are also called "bodily virtues" or excellences. They are viewed by the Fathers and Teachers of the Church as instruments for the effective use of the mental practices, which are more important than the bodily. Mental work consists of concentration, meditation, inner attention, mental prayer and other interior practices.

Bodily practices, such as fasting, vigils, and prostrations are used for weakening the passions of the body: gluttony, lust, laziness and so on, and thus helping to bring the body under control. Their use is in accord with Paul's statements: "Those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires;"59 and "I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection: lest...when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway."60 By bringing the body into subjection, quieting its distracting turbulence, these practices make it possible for the soul to be in a state of quietness or stillness (hesychia), which is one of the necessary conditions for concentration, meditation and other mental practices. Reading helps us appropriate the wisdom contained in sacred writings, and thus enables us to proceed in the path of salvation more successfully. Also, it provides the mind with suitable objects for meditation. Chanting, through the exposure of our sense of hearing to beautiful and uplifting words, rhythms and melodies, helps not only bring about a peaceful and healthy condition of body and soul, but also to fix indelibly in our minds the teachings contained in the hymns which are chanted.

The mental practices which I mentioned are closely related to one another. Thus, concentration is essential for all other mental work: for meditation, attention and prayer. Meditation is necessary for resting and refreshing the mind after it has engaged in mental prayer over a certain period of time, as such prayer calls for great effort. And inner attention is necessary to bar the entry into the heart and mind of thoughts alien to the prayer, as well as the intrusion of fantasies from the imagination.

Of the mental practices, the highest and most important is prayer. The others are accessories, aids to effective mental prayer. Through successful mental prayer one attains union with God, while through the other forms of "work," bodily and mental, and through the virtues which were discussed earlier, one rather prepares himself for such union and renders oneself fit for it.

Through the Divine Mysteries or Sacraments, and through bodily and mental "work" the Christian striver attains the virtues that were discussed briefly earlier, and the rest that constitutes Christian character. The possession of these virtues gives "likeness to God," renders man an undistorted image of Him. And through likeness, as we have said, man attains union with God, theosis, in the act of prayer.

Theosis is attainable in this life. And unless it is attained in this life, there will be no salvation in the life to come, in the spiritual realm. The Greek Fathers, especially the great mystics, are clear and emphatic on this point. Thus, the Father traditionally known as Dionysios the Areopagite, who is usually held today to have been in his prime towards the end of the fifth century, says: "Salvation is not possible otherwise than through theosis, and theosis is the attainment of likeness to God and union with him."61 Kallistos Kataphygiotis, a Church Father of the late Byzantine period, similarly remarks: "Unless the mind of the person is divinized (theothenai), it is not possible for him to be saved, according to the revelation of God-inspired men."62 This view is upheld by Nicodemous the Hagiorite, as we have already seen. Cavasilas says in substance the same thing, although in a different manner, and explains the relationship between theosis and salvation. He observes: "The life in Christ originates in this life; it is perfected, however, in the life to come.... It cannot attain perfection in men's souls in this life, nor even in that which is to come, without already having begun here."63 This perfection, attained in the life to come, is, I should add, what the term "salvation" means. Cavasilas goes on to emphasize the part played by Holy Baptism, Chrismation and the Eucharist in uniting man with Christ, in effecting man's theosis. That salvation pertains, according to Cavasilas, to the life to come, is clear from these statements: "In the world to come we shall be gods with God, fellow heirs with Him of the same riches, reigning with Him in the same kingdom."64 When the "new inner man has been shaped and formed here, he is thus born perfect in that perfect world which grows not old."65 Those, on the other hand, who do not attain theosis in this life go to the blessed and immortal world without the faculties for enjoying it; they are dead and miserable in it. The Divine light shines there with its pure rays, but they have no eye to see it. And the fragrance of the Holy Spirit is abundantly diffused and pervades all, but they lack the spiritual sense of smell.66

The glorious and blessed state attained in the life to come by those who have achieved theosis in this life -- salvation -- will be realized in full measure at the Second Advent. Then, as Saint Symeon the New Theologian puts it, there will be deliverance from all evils and finding in the Savior all blessings. At the Second Advent, the souls will be reinvested with their bodies, which will then be spiritual. At present, the bodies of the saints, remarks Cavasilas, are fixed to the earth and "continue to be tyrannized by corruption."67 But then they will exhibit their proper beauty, will "shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father."68 Those who have attained theosis have already entered into the joy of their Lord, though their divinization admits of increase. "But when Christ has been manifested, they will perceive more clearly what it is that they have brought with them."69

Having this glorious state in mind. Saint John Damascene closes his sublime Easter Day Canon with this troparion:

O Christ, our great and holiest Pascha, O Wisdom, Logos, and Power of God, grant that we may partake more clearly and fully in the endless day of Thy Kingdom.

In the way of salvation, as it has been described here, man passes from his fallen state, which is one of unlikeness to God, to the state of likeness to God; from the state of likeness to God, to that of union with God, termed theosis; and from the state of theosis, to that of salvation, which is one of everlasting perfect union with God.


1. 1 Pet. 1:9 (KJV).

2. Asketika, Athens, 1864, p. 281. Cf. Maximos the Confessor, Philokalia, Vol. 2, Athens, 1958, p. 150.

3. Cf. Lk. 1:71; Acts 27:34.

4. Heb. 5:9.

5. 1 Pet. 1:9.

6. Ibid

7. Phil. 2:12.

8. Pentekostarion. Athens, 1960, p. 219.

9. The Extant Works of Saint Symeon the New Theologian (Ton Hosiou Symeon tou Neon Theologou ta Heuriskomena). Syros, 1886, Part II. p. 24.

10. Ibid.

11. 4:12.

12. 2:10.

13. 5:9.

14. Klimax ("Ladder), Constantinople, 1883, p. 133.

15. Philokalia, Vol. 3, Athens, 1960, p. 13.

16. 2:4.

17. Philokalia. Vol. 1, Athens, 1957, p. 10.

18. Klimax, p. 148.

19. John 15:5 (KJV).

20. Philokalia, Vol. 1, p. 324.

21. Philokalia, Vol. 3, p. 171.

22. Kxriakodromion ("Sunday Sermonary"), Vol. 2, Moscow. 1796. p. 555.

23. Ps. 3:8 (KJV).

24. Nea Klimax ("New Ladder"), Volos, 1956, p. 229.

25. Zech. 1:3 (KIV).

26. 3:7 (KJV).

27. Philokalia, Vol. 3, 171.

28. Nea Klimax, p. 261.

29. Kyriakodromion, Vol. 1. p. 78.

30. 5:28-29 (KJV).

31. Kyriakodromion, Vol. 2, p. 555.

32. 16:17 (KJV).

33. 3:15 (KJV).

34. Philokalia, Vol. 2, Athens, 1958, p. 139.

35. Philokalia, Vol. 3, p. 7.

36. Klimax, p. 149.

37. Philokalia, Vol. 3, p. 7.

38. Klimax, p. 118.

39. Matt. 18:2-4 (KJV).

40. Matt. 10:22 (KJV).

41. Askelika, p. 152.

42. Cf. 1 Cor. 13:13.

43. Rom. 8:24-25 (KJV).

44. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Father, First Series, Vol. IX, Grand Rapids. Michigan, 1956, p. 211.

45. Ibid, p. 445.

46. Philokalia, Vol. 1, p. 292.

47. Philokalia, Vol. 2, pp. 245-246.

48. Ibid, p. 99.

49. Symbouleutikon Encheiridion ("Handbook of Counsel"), Athens, 1885, p. 198; cf. Nea Klimax. p. 247.

50. Philokalia. Vol. 2, p. 238.

51. Philokalia. Vol. 1, p. 24.

52. Philokalia. Vol. 2, p. 90.

53. Philokalia. Vol. 4, p. 132.

54. The Life in Christ, trans, by C.J. de Catanzaro, New York, 1974, p. 101.

55. Ibid. pp. 107, 111.

56. Ibid, p. 130.

57. Ibid, p. 116.

58. Ibid, pp. 116-117.

59. Gal. 5:24.

60. 1 Cor. 9:27 (KJV).

61. Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 150, col. 588.

62. Philokalia. Vol. 5, Athens, 1963, p. 41.

63. The Life in Christ, p. 43.

64. Ibid, p. 63.

65. Ibid, p. 44.

66. Ibid, p. 43.

67. Ibid, p. 146.

68. Matt. 13:43 (KJV).

69. Cavasilas, op. cit., p. 148. 

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