The Words of the Lewis Family
The Two Substantial Realms: The Convergence of Unification Thought and Modern Physics
March 10, 2008
The concept of "Unified Science" in Unification Thought embraces not just the unity of the sciences with each other -- in itself no mean feat -- but also the unity of science and theology in a seamless and whole description of the universe.
The reality of the current culture is quite different -- many scientists (including most biologists) still routinely ignore and contradict the well-established insights of quantum physics and are at loggerheads with Believers over just about everything else important.
Notwithstanding such disunity, there are areas where we can already see the convergence of modern science as developed by the generations of quantum pioneers, and modern theology as developed by Rev. Moon in Unification Thought (UT).
Unification Thought actually makes very few assertions about the detailed "nuts-and-bolts" workings of Creation, but these few are fundamental and of wide-reaching consequence. For example, two such assertions of UT are that:
1. All things have an internal extension -- variously called the Inherent Directive Nature, IDN, or Mind aspect that is not constrained to time-and-space -- and an external extension (the body) composed of subject and object interacting to ‘flesh out’ externally the internal form of the IDN.
2. There are two substantial realms in the Cosmos. There is the substantial physical realm into which our bodies are born and live as an "I Am"-with-a-body for a few score years. The physical body develops through the stages of growth guided by the Principle, the natural law. Concomitant with physical birth is the birth of the spirit body in the substantial spiritual realm that exists as an "I Am"-with-a-body for the rest of eternity. The spiritual body develops through the stages of growth guided by the actions of the physical body.
In my previous paper, I explained how modern physics is quite in agreement with the first assertion at the nuts-and-bolts level of particles, atoms and molecules. (The new science also insists -- and can prove it -- that while the external aspect can be accurately described using the familiar "real" numbers such as 1, 2, 3 this is impossible for the internal aspect. The internal aspect can only be accurately by complex numbers, sophisticated numbers involving both a "real" and "imaginary" axis on the complex plane. It will probably be some time, however, before theology becomes a hard science and can couch its insights in the math of complex numbers.)
In this paper, we will take a look at what modern science has to say about the possibility of two substantial realms cohabitating the one Cosmos.
Science is, and has to be, a very conservative discipline. Concepts are only altered when they have been proved inadequate, when scientists are forced to a ‘paradigm shift’ by observations of the world as it really functions. Now much of success in science -- and generating a Nobel-worth paradigm shift is the aspiration of all scientists -- comes from knowing where to look. The choices are endless. A fertile source of leads to potential prizes are the "loose ends" that are always around in all the sciences. Einstein, for instance, got his Stockholm-moment for explaining why faint blue light could eject electrons from a metal while intense red light could not. It was a loose end that was quite incompatible with theory for years.
One such loose end in current science is that the universe as an entity is not behaving in the way it should behave according to the current consensus.
Ever since the Creation event, the universe has been expanding. While this expansion was going on, however, gravity was doing the opposite thing by pulling the galaxies towards each other. Therefore, given the original impulse of the Big Bang, the expectation was that the expansion of the universe was slowing down over time. Just like a ball thrown up in the air, we expect its rate of ascension to slow down by the tug of gravity. Depending on how hard the throw, the ball will eventually slow to a stop and then start moving back to earth, or just keep going upwards at an ever-diminishing rate that never gets to zero. (The ‘escape velocity’ or minimum starting speed for the ball to keep on going is about 45,000 mph which is why common sense has it that what goes up, must come down.)
Whatever the eventual destiny of the ascending ball, however, we most certainly expect that it will slow down as it separates from the thrower.
In a similar way, scientists had every expectation, whatever the final fate of the universe, that they would find that the rate of expansion of the universe has been slowing down, however slowly, over the eons since the Creation event as it was opposed by all-attractive gravity.
Adding fuel to this confident expectation of a slow down was the discovery that there is much more to the universe than we can see with our best telescopes. This is where its name ‘dark matter’ comes from, it neither bothers with light nor lets light bother it. Hitherto unnoticed, it is far more abundant than the ‘regular matter’ of the visible stars and galaxies out there, and it seems to play a crucial role in the early universe gravitationally shepherding the originally-diffuse gas of Creation into the stars, galaxies and collections of galaxies, and holding them together to this day.
As is clear from this midwife role, whatever this dark matter is -- and this is currently considered an ‘open’ question -- it has one thing in common with regular matter: gravity. Just like regular matter, it attracts both itself and regular matter.
Adding such dark matter into the consideration of how gravity is slowing down the universe’s rate of expansion thus only supports our expectation of observing such slowing down. In the ball analogy, no one doubts that the slowing of ascent on Jupiter, given equal starting velocities, would be far greater than the slowdown observed on Earth.
So there was every expectation that when the techniques for such subtle measurements across the whole of space and time became available they would reveal this universal slowdown.
The technologies only recently emerged, and the measurements have been made, so the results are now in.
For the first half of it history, the measurements revealed that the universe lived up to expectations, its rate of expansion was slowing down.
"By observing distant, ancient exploding stars, physicists and astronomers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and elsewhere have determined that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate… Thus, instead of slowing down, as everyone had expected, the expansion of the universe is in fact speeding up… Using the world's best telescopes, including the Keck Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope, Berkeley Lab's Supernova Cosmology Project continues to pursue studies aimed at confirming these astonishing results."
The big surprise, and a current loose end, is that in middle age this youthful decrease in the rate of expansion ended, and the opposite seems to have happened -- assuming the observations are confirmed. The universe expansion started to speed up -- we are not only living in an expanding universe, we are living in one in which the rate of expansion is also increasing.
Scientists are forced to conclude that the universe is filled with something that is in such abundance that its influence on the rate expansion is so great in this current age that it:
1) Overwhelms the gravitational attraction of all the regular matter in the galactic superclusters
2) Also overwhelms the gravitational attraction of all the much greater amount of dark matter in the strands of it that span the universe and on which the galaxies gather like dew on spider webs.
3) Even after counteracting both these slowdowns, the "dark energy" still has sufficient influence left over to be speeding up the rate expansion of our universe these days. (Regular matter turns out to be a rather minor, if essential, constituent of the universe.)
The name that this all-pervasive component of the universe has been given is ‘dark energy.’ This is a very misleading name for, whatever it turns out to be, this "dark" stuff will most certainly not be ‘energy’ in the sense that Einstein used in his famous equation. The equivalence of mass and energy he established -- considered more an identity than an equivalence these days -- extends to its gravitational effect. A ball of pure energy has exactly the same gravitational attraction and influence as its equivalent bit of matter.
There is just why the name ‘dark matter’ is so inappropriate. Great amounts of any energy can only add their attractive effects to the gravitational attraction of the regular and dark matter in slowing down the rate of universal expansion.
But that is the very one thing the ‘dark energy’ is most certainly not doing; not only is it not slowing down the expansion, it is doing exactly the opposite and speeding it up.
Whatever this ‘dark energy’ is, it does not involve the gravity expected of either physical energy or regular and dark matter. (The similarity in the ‘dark’ names just adds confusion.) Instead, this aspect of the universe exhibits what is clearly an antigravity behavior.
The universe is filled with stuff that interacts in a way that is the exact opposite expected of physical stuff.
We can now examine the case for this anti-gravity dark energy to be an aspect of the substantial spiritual world.
Complements and opposites
The Divine Principle emphasizes the fact that the ‘ways of the spiritual world’ are very often the exact opposite to the ways of the physical world. In a literal sense then we might well expect that the substantial spiritual world will behave in exactly the opposite way to the substantial physical world.
This actually makes a lot of sense. In mathematics, for instance, zero, or nothing, is very easily decomposed into a pair of opposites such as 0 = (+1) + ( -- 1). In physics, the empty vacuum fluctuates easily into pairs of particles such as the electron and the antimatter positron. (Note that antimatter behaves, as far as gravity is concerned, exactly in the same as matter: it is always attractive. Antimatter and antigravity are different things entirely.) Here we have a similar 0 = e -- + e+.
Neither math nor physics, however, can embrace such things as 0 = +1 or 0 = e+.
Assuming that this holds true for the cosmos in general we can expect that the simplest way for God to Create event would involve separating Absolutely Nothing into two realms that were opposites in every way -- a (+1)+ ( -- 1) type process rather than a 0 = +1 type event.
Based on this, we might certainly expect that if the structure of the physical world involves gravity then the structure of the spirit world involves antigravity. Score one for agreement of UT with scientific observation: the physical realm of regular matter cohabits the cosmos with another realm quite opposite in behavior.
It is well known that the speed of light plays a special role in the physical realm. In what can be called natural units, the speed of light is exactly 1 (or one Planck quantum of length per Planck quantum tick of time. The c and c2 that appear so often in equations are actually just conversion factors of this speed of 1/1 into human units such as km/sec (c = 108) or mph (c = 669,600,000).
The equations of Special Relativity are firmly established in modern physics as an accurate description of movement in space and time. These equations allow for three basic movements through space and time.
1. Luxons. These entities have zero rest mass. They move at the speed of light through space and at zero speed through time. The photon and gluon are examples of luxons.
2. Tardyons. These entities have a positive rest mass (regular gravity). They move at speeds essentially zero (compared to light) through space and at light speed through time (moving through a second of time is equivalent to moving 186,000 miles through space -- a second is a long, long time on the natural scale). The electron and quark are examples of tardyons. The balance between increasing speed, decreasing time, increasing mass and decreasing length of things made of tardyons is given by the Lorentz Transformation equations.
3. Tachyons. These entities have a negative rest mass (antigravity, and a connection with the observed ‘dark energy’ pervading the universe). They move at speeds that are many multiples the speed of light through space and at negative light speed through time. Moving backward in time, while anathema in classical science, is quite commonplace in modern science. A positron, for instance, the antimatter partner of the electron, is just an electron moving backwards in time. This only applies to the internal aspect, however, because external interaction and observation always involves the square of the internal, and both positive and negative numbers give a positive number when squared. Therefore, while a positron is moving backwards in time internally, when we observe it we actually see it moving along in time just as we do. The same thing applies to tachyons. The ‘dark energy’ entities, the putative tardyon spirit stuff, will do the same and shares the same external time with the physical world.
(This is a more technical description of these three modes: "Now the fundamental fact of relativity is that E^2 - p^2 = m^2. (Let's take c=1 for the rest of the discussion.) For any non-zero value of m (mass), this is an hyperbola with branches in the timelike regions. It passes through the point (p,E) = (0,m), where the particle is at rest. Any particle with mass m is constrained to move on the upper branch of this hyperbola. (Otherwise, it is "off-shell", a term you hear in association with virtual particles - but that's another topic.) For massless particles, E^2 = p^2, and the particle moves on the light-cone. These two cases are given the names tardyon (or bradyon in more modern usage) and luxon, for "slow particle" and "light particle". Tachyon is the name given to the supposed "fast particle" which would move with v>c. Now another familiar relativistic equation is E = m*[1-(v/c)^2]^(-.5). Tachyons (if they exist) have v > c. This means that E is imaginary! Well, what if we take the rest mass m, and take it to be imaginary?")
Things made of tardyons -- such as the human body -- typically move through space at tiny fractions of lightspeed. As they speed up, the inertial mass increases without bound until at unattainable lightspeed the mass would be infinite. Lightspeed is an upper bound for movement through space in the physical world.
Temperature and speed have an intimate connection. When the speed of spatial motion is zero, the temperature is at absolute zero, the unattainable lower bound on speed in the physical realm (the current record in the lab is a few trillionths of a degree above absolute zero). The pleasant environment known as room temperature, for instance, is a consequence of gas atoms moving at speeds of many miles a second. While fast by our standards, this is just a ten-millionth of lightspeed, so earth is actually rather frigid on the natural scale of temperature.
The opposite would hold for things made of tachyons. At low anti-energies, they move at great multiples of lightspeed. As they gain anti-energy and anti-mass, they slow down until with great enough anti-mass are only moving at a few times lightspeed. The speed of light is the lower speed limit for tachyons, the putative elements of the antigravity spiritual realm of dark energy.
(The maximum temperature possible in the physical universe is the Planck Temperature -- a trillion, trillion, trillion degrees. This is, quite naturally, the lowest temperature in spirit world. Entities composed of the heavy massive tachyons we have associated with sin or ‘going the wrong way’ are in a very hot environment, from our point of view, but in a frigid environment by the standards of spirit world.)
The mathematical relation between the typical speeds of tardyons and tachyons is the inverse function. The lower bound of absolutely zero in the physical realm maps to 1/0 which, allowing for loose talk about limits, is infinity, the unattainable upper bound on speed in the spirit world. Realms of spirit world at a comfortable ‘room temperature’ could then be associated with tachyons moving at 10,000,000c. Just staying in the same bit of space is clearly just one of the reasons why spirit entities have difficulty communicating with physical entities.
We conclude that Special Relativity can easily accommodate the assertion of Unification Thought that there are two realms that, while opposite in fundamental ways, cohabit the same universe. Score a point for convergence.
Left and Right
Rotary motion, or spin, plays a central role in quantum physics. While things can rotate or not rotate in the everyday world, in the realm of subatomic particles everything has spin, even light. There are just two ways of spinning given any axis: you can spin one way to the right (clockwise from above) or the other way, spin to the left.
In the low temperature world we inhabit, either way of spinning is equally possible. Right and left are the same in a slow world. In fact, it was almost impossible for scientists to even consider that Nature could have a preference for left or right.
This equality of left and right spin is trivial for things moving at sublight speeds. If you see a slowpoke electron that appears to be spinning left, you can always overtake it and, looking back, see that it is now spinning to the right.
Now an electron has a very small rest mass and just a little added energy speeds it up a great deal. At very high energies it can move at so close to lightspeed as makes no difference. At such energies (typical of nuclear transitions) an electron has a defined spin; you could never overtake it and see it spin the opposite way.
Still, the expectation was that equal numbers of left and right electrons would be created in high-energy situations.
Therefore, it came as a great shock when this expectation was confounded. All such electrons are created spinning to the left. This, somewhat seriously, is referred to in science as the ‘left handedness of God.’ Another example is the neutrino, an even simpler entity than an electron. Every neutrino in the universe -- and there are trillions of them for each atom present -- is left-handed. (When a neutrino moves (internally) through time in the opposite direction it is observed as a right-handed anti-neutrino.) The right-handed neutrino, if it is ever detected, is expected to be a very high-energy particle with a great mass.
This fundamental left-handedness of the physical universe suggests just the opposite holds true in the spirit realm. The opposite of a left-handed neutrino with little mass would be a right-handed tachyon with little anti-mass. Such a low mass spirit entity could move at the 10,000,000c of the nice realms.
Just like the massive right-handed neutrino in the physical world, a left-handed tachyon would have a huge amount of anti-mass and only move at a few multiples of lightspeed at a very low temperature (by spirit world standards.) The speculation that good deeds generate right-handed entities speeding off to infinity, while evil deeds generate massive, sluggish left-handed entities moving just above light speed is not at all incompatible with the way modern science views the universe.
The creation of the physical and spiritual universe must have involved a separation of Absolutely Nothing into a bit of sophisticated left-handedness -- which developed into the physical realm -- and a complementary bit of right-handedness that formed the spirit realm.
Remarkably, science already knows a great deal about the ‘bit of sophisticated left-handedness’ that initiated the Big Bang.
The Creation Event
We can get at least a qualitative understanding of the sophisticated left-handedness by taking a look at electrons in the everyday realm in which they spin with equal ease either right or left.
The equations of quantum physics, and all of experience, reveal that it is impossible to get two identical electrons to share the same state. This exclusion principle underlies the varied properties of atoms, the diversity of the chemical elements. That low energy electrons can spin either right or left allows one of each type to share the same quantum state, the "pair-bond" that links atoms into molecules and macromolecules.
The exclusionary type of behavior in a subatomic particle such as an electron or quark is called fermion. The exact opposite quality, that of inclusion or tendency to congregate in the same state, is called boson behavior. Light is a boson; a laser is just a zillion photons all in exactly the same state.
On the large scale, it is the exclusion principle, and this alone, that will hold up our sun in its dotage as a black dwarf. As the sun starts to shrinks into an earth-sized white dwarf, it will the refusal of its evermore-compressed electrons to share the same state that will halt its gravitational collapse. During the rest of its old age, it will stay the same size as it cools ever so slowly towards the chill of outer space. In larger stars where the lash of gravity is too large to bear, the electrons each choose to merge with a quark and disappear rather than share the same state. A Manhattan-sized neutron star emerges where it is the refusal of neutrons to share space that holds up matter against the crush of a trillion gravities (the escape velocity is 80% lightspeed).
Exclusion, the fermion type behavior, is a characteristic of physical matter. Only the possibility of pairing mitigates this basic tendency of the electrons to exclude each other.
With this absolute exclusion in mind, imagine a state where a zillion identical electrons were created in the same state. We would expect that such a state would explode outwards with enormous force away from such an abhorrent state (more technically, a state of very high ‘action’ or zero quantum probability). This gives a sense of what the initial state was like, of what the bit of sophisticated left-handedness started out as.
The technical name for the initial state of the universe is ‘the false vacuum.’ This has a remarkable property when considered as a solution to Einstein’s succinct tensor equation of General Relativity that in math-speak look like this
When translated into succinct high concept English reads: Spacetime tells matter how to move -- that’s the elegant bit on the left hand side of the equation -- while matter, energy and pressure tell spacetime how to curve -- that’s the messy looking bits to the right.
Now, while mass and energy in the physical universe are always positive -- they have regular attractive gravity -- pressure can be negative as well as positive. Pressure, which hardly ever plays a significant role and can usually ignored when solving Einstein’s equations, played a central role in Creation. The false vacuum is equivalent to a tremendous negative pressure -- a huge anti-gravity type effect. This drove the false vacuum double in size so rapidly that in a fraction of a second a speck of it went from something less than the size of an atom to something larger than the size of the visible universe. The vastness of the universe was created remarkably quickly, and all the increase in size since the Big Bang has been minor in comparison.
This false vacuum involves a ‘Higgs field’ that has the odd property of being at lowest energy when the field is non-zero, and at high energy when the field is zero. The internal entanglement of this Higgs field was stretched out enormously to an extremely small value. The small, but non-zero entanglement that remained is the underling cause for the inertial mass that connects all mass on a universal level (called Mach’s Principle). This stretched out Higgs field is the vacuum of empty space and it still has a built in preference for spinning left that still shows up at high energies. It is quantized twists and ripples in this complex Higgs field that we observe as electrons and photons, etc.
In the Beginning, the false vacuum exploded outwards in a massive inflation creating the vast three dimensions of space. At the end of this period of inflation, when the Higgs field had a chance to reach a high value, low energy state, the energy it shook was the fireball of matter and antimatter in which the original left-handedness was expressed as a tiny excess of matter over anti-matter. As the fireball continued expanding at a more sedate rate, the universe cooled.
The temperature of this fireball was so high -- a trillion, trillion, trillion degrees -- that everything was moving at essentially the speed of light so, as mentioned earlier, there was no passage of time. As the cooling progressed to the mere trillions and billions, things started slowing down below lightspeed and start moving through time. Time started just a little after space was created.
As the cooling continued, only the tiny excess of matter over antimatter remained to later make up humans, earth, stars and galaxies as the huge excess of matter and anti-matter annihilated into photons of light. As the ratio of these photons coming out of the Big Bang to each electron was at least one hundred billion to one, we can only congratulate the writer of Genesis on such an accurate description of the first moments of Creation. (As the nature of dark matter is still an open question, its place in the Creation event is also open.)
In this context, what we earlier called sophisticated left-handedness is referred to as "the slight asymmetry of matter and anti-matter in natural law." It is the connection between this creation of matter and the false vacuum of Creation that leads quantum cosmologists to speak of the ‘left-handedness of God.’
We can, however, rescue the symmetry of left and right if the Creation event generated not just one but two realms, one spinning to the left, as already discussed, while the other was set spinning to the right (in a complex quantum way of speaking, of course). If the origin of the physical realm involved left-handed exclusion, we might expect the origin of the spirit realm to involve right-handed inclusion. That boson behavior, not fermion behavior, is fundamental in spirit world.
The dynamics of the two realms would then be quite different. In the physical realm, the tendency of tardyons to collapse into a point is counteracted by the exclusion principle. In the spirit realm, the tendency to fly apart (as tachyons might be expected to do) is counteracted by the inclusion principle that pulls them in.
Either way, the balance between the two must end out to be very similar for, by all accounts, seeing a physical body with a physical self is remarkably similar to seeing a spiritual body with a spiritual self (at least at first glance).
Classical science has no room in its conceptual structure for a spiritual realm coexisting side by side with the physical realm.
To the contrary, as we have just briefly described, modern science has no problem with the concept of two realms. If the basic interaction between these two realms is that of antigravity, then we have already observed the influence of the spirit world in the large on the physical world in the large, the ‘dark energy’ which is accelerating the expansion of the physical universe.
This paper has focused on the external aspect of the spiritual and physical realms. The internal aspect -- and the external is just a tip-of-the-iceberg on the internal aspect in modern physics -- of entities such as the atom resides in what can only inadequately be called ‘mathematical space’, the realm where math resides so to speak. The physical world and spiritual world have this internal math realm in common, so the IDN/mind aspects of spiritual and physical entities are qualitatively the same.
A note on relative size. While we consider atoms as extremely small on our scale of things -- a hundred million atoms fit across the diameter of this dash -- they are actually extremely large on the natural scale of things. The atom is about a trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion times the volume of an electron. The IDN orbital, which gives form to the electron’s history as a subsystem of an atom, is vast on the natural scale of things. Things made of atoms are even vaster.
We have no information on the spatial extent of wavefunctions in the not-inflated right-handed Higgs vacuum of the spirit realm. If they are a lot smaller than in the physical realm this would explain why there appears to be plenty of room in the vastness of a human body for many spirit entities to hang out in.
If this view of spiritual and physical has any validity, we can speculate as to how the two realms might communicate with each other in a way more convenient and reliable than dreams and visions. What technology does the science suggest is at least plausible?
That the realm of mathematics is something the two realms share in common is not something our current technologies can exploit.
Another more amenable place of contact is the lightspeed boundary -- the top speed in the physical realm and the slowest speed in spirit world.
A tachyon with a high anti-mass will be moving at just above lightspeed, while a high-energy tardyon will be moving at just below lightspeed. There might be a possibility for the two to ‘bump into’ each other and cause some unexpected violation of otherwise absolute physical rules such as the conservation of mass/energy or electric charge.
The tachyon will be spinning right and moving backwards in time. The nearest approximation we have to this is a right-spinning positron, a left-spinning electron moving backwards in complex time.
An atomic nucleus undergoing reverse beta decay in an intense magnetic field (which supplies the left-right orientation to the Higgs, so to speak) will emit positrons moving at essentially lightspeed. Alternatively, and on a much grander level, the beams of positrons routinely manipulated in huge synchrotrons can be right polarized. Either way, if they have the simplest interaction possible with tachyons -- that of spin -- we can expect that the pattern of left-right polarization will be altered. A positron turning into a neutrino, and nothing else, would be an example of the passing over of the twist that is electric charge. Flipping a positron into an electron would result if the exchange of twists went the other way.
Rather than continue such speculation, we conclude that modern science -- unlike classical science and its solid matter -- is not at all hostile to the concept of another realm coexisting with the physical. To the contrary, not only does modern science have some observational support for the idea, it even open to ways in which the two realms might communicate.
We can conclude that, while it is not possible for current science to state definitively that the "dark energy" is a global effect of spiritual world, that the concept is not antithetical is surely a sign of the convergence of modern theology and science.
 Research News: //www.lbl.gov/supernova/
 That is the Good News. The converse implies that it is impossible to reconcile theology with classical science. Much of the old view of science will have to be jettisoned along the way in order to become comfortable with the new science, a painful process as quantum physicists and chemists can still attest.