Communism: A New Critique And Counterproposal
1. What are the reasons why Communism has spread throughout the world?
(1) Reasons in terms of its theory
(a) The system and composition of its theory are orderly and reasonable.
(b) The impression has been given that its philosophy coincides with scientific theories.
(c) Its theories about economics, society, politics, culture, and practice are consistent and coherent.
(d) It gives a vision for the future.
(e) Its theory is practical and agitative. It has a strong appeal for the young people, who are very righteous and critical
(2) Realistic (Historical) reasons
(a) Marx's theory was applicable to early capitalism.
(b) Even today the situation in underdeveloped countries is often similar to that of early capitalism.
(c) Communist countries have strong military power.
(d) In advanced countries those young people who are not satisfied with their situation are curious and attracted to Communism.
(e) Leaders in free countries have been indifferent to the essential nature of Communism and defenseless against the ideological offensive of Communism.
(f) Scholars in the free world have been unable to offer any counterproposal which can criticize and conquer Communism.
(g) Religion has been unable to become the essential guiding idea in human life, and has no power to halt the offensive of Communism.
(3) Providential reasons
(a) Communism is a thought which appeared on the side of evil in accordance with the "Law of Separation of Good and Evil."
(b) It is the materialistic thought of the perfection stage for restoration of the human environment.
(c) It is the thought of the false heavenly kingdom on the side of evil which appeared, preceding the true thought of the Lord of the Second Advent, in accordance with "The Law of Falsity Preceding the Truth."
(d) It is the modern Gentile thought (of today) which appeared as a warning to the side of goodness (the democratic bloc).
2. What are the reasons why Communism must perish?
(1) Reasons in terms of theory
(a) It has been verified in the course of scientific progress that Communist philosophy is unscientific methodology and has nothing to do with science.
(b) The reality inside Communist societies demonstrates that their theories are false. (Lieberman's Law, restriction of freedom, infringement upon rights, etc.)
(c) All Marx's followers have amended his theory for their own convenience. This necessity for repeated revisions indicates that Communist theory is erroneous.
(d) Communist theory has no central point of unity, so there is no possibility of unity in practice. (2) Realistic (Historical) reasons
(a) Movements for freedom are arising inside Communist countries.
(b) The conflict between Communist China and the Soviet Union shows that disunity inside the Communist bloc has deepened, due to the lack of a unified, central point.
(c) Because of its dictatorial system and the formation of the even more merciless class society, the dissatisfaction of the masses has increased. (Some symptoms expressing such dissatisfaction are decrease of productivity, negative noncooperation, etc.)
(3) Providential reasons
(a) Because of the Law of Indemnity, they cannot avoid indemnity for their persecution of religions and murder of righteous people.
(b) The struggle between good and evil will result in the victory of goodness. Therefore, since Communism is the final evil in human history, it has to be inevitably defeated by goodness.
(c) It is the thought of the false Lord of the Second Advent, so unavoidably it will be absorbed by the thought of the true Lord of the Second Advent when that thought appears.
3. Explain the background of the age in which Marxism was established.
(1) The whole of Europe was permeated by a revolutionary atmosphere. Because of the French Revolution in 1789, and Napoleon's rise to power and rule over Europe, the ideas of liberalism and nationalism spread throughout Europe. However, as the European rulers established the reactionary Vienna System and suppressed the movements of liberalism and nationalism, riots and rebellions broke out in various places throughout Europe (Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Naples, Carbonaro, Greece) and the colonies in Central and South America. The July Revolution of 1830 in France partly broke down the Vienna System; in Belgium independence was declared, and in Poland a rebellion arose. In France, the industrial revolution was in progress, and in February 1848, the February Revolution arose, in which socialists participated and cooperated. In this manner, Europe was permeated by a revolutionary atmosphere during Marx's early years.
(2) In the early days of capitalism there were disastrous social phenomena taking place everywhere. Under the capitalist system, which developed along with the industrial revolution in England, workers were overworked and exploited mercilessly. The workers lived under conditions which could not support human life; they were little more than slaves. Their working situations were unbearable: for example, extremely bad sanitary facilities, excessive extension of labor hours; low wages barely maintaining them above the starvation level, forced labor, exploitation of women and children, and an increase in unemployment as a result of the introduction of machinery. In this situation a man of social conscience could not help opposing capitalism.
(3) One of the social conditions disadvantageous to the laborers, was the lack of any political representation. No matter how inhuman their treatment, they had no way to send representatives to the government to speak against their miserable situation and to improve the national policy. The working classes at last initiated a political struggle against the ruling class, by drawing up the "People's Charter" which advocated the following improvements in the British political system:
a. Universal suffrage
b. Annual parliaments
c. Vote by ballot
d. The abolition of property qualifications for membership in the House of Commons
e. Payment of members of Parliament
f. Equal electoral districts
This charter served as the basis for the "Chartist Movement."
(4) Thinkers and religious people in those days were incapable of correcting these social conditions. Some thinkers deplored and intended to improve these miserable social situations. There were the Utopian Socialists, for example, such as Robert Owen (1771-1858), Saint-Simon (1760-1825), and Charles Fourier (11772-1837). They believed that they could peacefully remove the contradictions of capitalism merely by appealing to the conscience of capitalists by means of peaceful education and enlightenment. Religious people only preached to capitalists and laborers by saying, "Believe in God," and even rationalized the disparity by declaring that it was God's will. Thus, to radical socialist activists, utopian socialism seemed impotent, and religions were merely the opium of the masses.
(5) For those reasons, it was inevitable that Marxism appear. From the standpoint of God's providence, the Satanic thought was able to disguise itself as goodness and invade Western European society, because Christianity failed to fulfill its portion of responsibility.
4. Explain simply the sources of Communist thought (Marxism-Leninism).
Communist thought was composed from three sources: German philosophy (Hegel's dialectic, Feuerbach's materialism); French socialism (Saint-Simon's Extinction of States, Fourier's Class Struggle, Babeuf's Violent Revolution, Blanqui's Dictatorship); and English classical economics (Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, Ricardo's Theory of Value) Marx developed dialectical materialism and the materialist view of history from German philosophy, the political theories from French socialism and his economic theories from English economics. Of the above theories, German philosophy became the basis of Marxism-Leninism.
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