A History of the Unification Church in Canada: 1965-1991

by Franco Famularo

Chapter Six - The Werner Years [Part 5]

New Leadership -- Outreach Activities -- Financial Activities -- Peripheral Activities—Initial Stages of Decentralization

E. Initial Stages of Decentralization

Although it was probably not apparent to many members at the time, the seeds for the decentralization of the Canadian movement took root during the last two years of Paul Werner's time in Canada. Several factors contributed to this. The first and most important was the direct intervention of Rev. Moon, which came in the form of his two visits to Canada in 1987 and 1988. In addition, Rev. Moon's June 1988 declaration, which came to be known among church members as "Hometown Providence", further contributed to the decentralization process.91 Members were encouraged to return to their hometown and develop outreach activities there. This directive became even more pronounced in the following years and a virtual exodus from church centers took place throughout North America.

Another factor contributing to the initial stages of the decentralization of the church in Canada, was what came to be understood by Unificationists as the spiritual re-appearance of Heung Jin Moon. Rev. Moon's second eldest son, Heung Jin, died in 1984 at the age of seventeen. According to Unificationist sources, Heung Jin Moon began working spiritually through a young church member from Africa (Zimbabwe) in the summer of 1987. The member who represented Heung Jin Moon, Cleopas Kundioni, toured the entire world bringing a message of the need for confession, repentance and forgiveness to all members of the international Unification movement.92 During almost a one year period, beginning in summer 1987, what became known as the "activities of Heung Jin Nim," had a significant effect on the entire Unification movement worldwide.

Other factors which contributed to the decentralization process were, for example, a significant increase in the number of married couples, the development of a dissenting faction which included a number of key members, and the change of leadership in late 1988. It is interesting to note, however, that by late 1987 all activities had once again been re-consolidated. Outreach took place only in Toronto, Montreal and Quebec City, while members continued their work on the MFT and at the Clearstone farm.93 For this reason the church appeared far from being de-centralized than ever before. But, the centralized nature of the church would not last much longer. For some members however, it was just a little too long.

1. Rev. Moon's First Visit to Clearstone Breeding Farms

On June 21, 1987, Peter Kim, then Rev. Moon's personal assistant, telephoned Paul Werner to inform him that Rev. Moon and a party of some ten to fifteen people would be visiting Canada a few days later.94 Since it was not clear as to when they would arrive, there was a definite sense of suspense and expectation. Rev. Moon had not visited Canada in almost ten years.

On June 25, at 9:15 p.m., Rev. and Mrs. Moon, their four youngest sons, Kook Jin, Kwon Jin, Young Jin and Hyung Jin and members of their staff, which included Peter Kim, Ki Byung Yoon, Mike McDevitt, Wonju McDevitt and Hae Young Guerra, arrived at the Clearstone Breeding Farms in Roseneath, Ontario. Rev. Moon's party had traveled by car all day, having begun their journey in the early morning from Irvington, New York travelling via Niagara Falls.

After being greeted by Paul and Christel and a few of the Canadian members who were present,95 Rev. Moon and his four sons, went for a walk to view the deer breeding operation. Rev. Moon and his party then had dinner with several members. At the table were Paul Werner, Choon Keun Chang, then responsible for Korean church activities in Canada, Steve Barton, then manager of the farm operation, Franco Famularo, and Robert Duffy. After Mrs. Moon and her children had retired for the night, Rev. Moon spoke with the Canadian members present until 1:15 a.m. The discussion revolved around the development of the church, the deer operation, fishing activities, and the fur business.

Early the next morning after breakfast was served Rev. and Mrs. Moon viewed the deer and chinchilla operations on the property. After lunch Rev. Moon went fishing on Rice Lake, adjacent to the Clearstone property, with his son Kook Jin, Paul Werner, Choon Keun Chang, Peter Kim, and Mike McDevitt. Mrs. Moon stayed back and took some of the members for a walk around the property. The youngest sons, Kwon Jin, Young Jin and Hyung Jin spent time playing around the property.

Rev. Moon and those who were fishing returned to have dinner at approximately 10:00 p.m. Rev. Moon then spoke with a few members till shortly after midnight about fishing. He was specifically interested in knowing precisely where the deepest point in Rice Lake was located and viewed the available maps of the lake. One member, Peter Hume, went to great lengths to locate the lake's deepest point. Late that night, he called one of the neighbors to discover the exact location.96

At 5:00 a.m. the next morning, Rev. Moon, to everyone's surprise, awakened everyone to once again go fishing on Rice Lake. No one was aware of Rev. Moon's plan to go out so early and there was a rush to prepare everything for the day. As Rev. Moon embarked on the boat, the first question he asked was, "Where is the deepest point in the lake?" Peter Hume who was standing at the dock, showed Rev. Moon on the map. Rev. Moon and his party then fished till 10:30 a.m. and then returned to shore for breakfast. Later they set out again and stayed on the water till 9:30 p.m. when dinner was served. Mrs. Moon stayed back throughout the day and watched two movies ("Fiddler on the Roof" and "Nicholas and Alexandra"), and also played with the younger children in the fields.

After dinner Rev. Moon spoke with the members till midnight, during which time he gave Paul Werner ten-thousand dollars as seed money to initiate a sable breeding operation. On Sunday, June 28, Rev. and Mrs. Moon and their children, invited the members to participate at the regular 5:00 a.m. pledge service with them.97 Rev. Moon spoke for a couple of hours after the service. After having breakfast at 7:30 a.m. Rev. Moon and his party visited, what was then called, the second farm in Baltimore, Ontario.98 They then continued their journey to New York arriving late in the evening at Irvington.

The trip was significant in that a number of members were directly exposed to Rev. Moon and his family. For some, it was an opportunity to directly witness Rev. Moon in action for the first time, since most members had only seen Rev. Moon in large public gatherings. It was also an opportunity to hear his message directly in a Canadian context. For example, at a dinner conversation during his visit, Rev. Moon asked specifically about the Unification Church activities in Canada: He asked Paul Werner as follows: "Is there still any opposition against our movement?" Paul responded, "Not really. We had two kidnappings, but otherwise everything is fine." Rev. Moon responded, "We would rather have a few kidnappings than nothing. This is the time when people recognize Father [Rev. Moon]. A new level. A new dimension."99 Rev. Moon further encouraged the members to expand membership:

Canada has many natural resources. Land wise, it is much bigger than America, right ... That means we have to witness to Canadian people. They should become Unification Church members quickly.100

Sensing Paul's eagerness to achieve much greater things in his life, Rev. Moon commented:

Paul has great ambition. When [I] see Paul here, in the corner of the Canadian country here, [I] feel sorry. (Paul responded "Indemnity" to which Rev. Moon answered) It's necessary.101

He also encouraged the general membership to develop and grow quickly saying:

Therefore, please work hard under Rev. Werner's leadership. [I] feel Rev. Werner is getting older too. He is becoming 60. His way of walking is a little bit different now too. When Rev. Werner was in his 40's and 50's he was considered a tiger or a lion. Now he is 60 years old. [I don't] think he is, if I may say, as vicious as when he was in his 40's and 50's. Actually this is the time to create a new witnessing team, a revival team ... It is almost impossible for Unification members to witness and bring more members than the number of Christians in the world. Therefore, we have to witness and restore the Christian ministers so that they can handle their congregations.102

Growth and increase of membership, however, did not occur as rapidly as Rev. Moon had hoped. Outreach to the clergy as requested, was not intensely undertaken either.

2. Internal and External Turbulence

It would be almost exactly one year until Rev. Moon visited Canada again. His expectations for increased outreach were not met. Several reasons for this lack of development exist, but it would be safe to say that the period from the summer of 1987 until the end of 1988 was one filled with inner commotion, primarily related to the re-appearance and messages of "Heung Jin Nim". Other factors that contributed to the turbulence were the investigation of the church by Revenue Canada and the emergence of open dissent toward Paul Werner's leadership by some members.

At the end of 1987, the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin held a conference for international leaders of the Unification Church in New York City. It was announced that all Canadian members would soon be attending a meeting in New York as well, but due to undisclosed reasons the meeting was canceled. In the meantime, through prayer, some Canadian members were receiving spiritual messages which led them to communicate with certain Korean elders of the church in America with regard to the apparent difficulties within the Canadian church. Letters were also written to the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin.

In an unusual development, in March 1988, while the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin was visiting Europe, Paul Werner was invited to attend a seven-day conference in Germany. He was asked to come with his wife and two senior couples from the Canadian church. Robert and Johanna Duffy and Franco and Chizuru Famularo attended representing Canada. For some reason, the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin announced during the conference that Canada, from then on, would belong to the European Unification movement organization. Not only did it take everyone by surprise, but it also meant that support was requested for European projects and outreach activities. During the period from March till June 1988, approximately twenty five members went to France, Britain, Germany and Austria to participate in a variety of European activities. Some of the members who participated were Mubina Jaffer, Violaine Mailloux, Michal Trusilo, and Steve and Nancy Barton.

The map had been redrawn and Canada was temporarily the western-most part of Europe. This meant that energies were diverted from Canadian activities to help support activities in Europe. Also significant was that through the intervention of the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin, Paul and Christel were offered a child by a couple at the March conference in Germany. This resulted in the Werners having to spend considerable time in the United States to complete adoption procedures. By the time Rev. Moon visited again in 1988, the church in Canada, although it was still centralized and consolidated, was showing signs of change. Rev. Moon would further de-stabilize the centralized nature of the movement.

3. Rev. Moon's Sixth Visit to Canada

While attending a meeting in New York on June 14, 1988, Paul Werner was informed that there was a strong possibility Rev. and Mrs. Moon would visit Canada. That same day, three of Rev. Moon's children, Un Jin, Hyun Jin and Kook Jin, arrived in Toronto. Un Jin and Hyun Jin then participated in two equestrian grand prix events which were held at the Palgrave Grounds near Bolton, Ontario on June 19, and at Sunnybrooke Park in Toronto on June 26. This was in preparation for their participation in the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea. They stayed for two weeks.

On Saturday June 18, at 5:30 p.m., Rev. and Mrs. Moon, their sons Hyo Jin, Kwon Jin, Jun Suk Moon (wife of Hyun Jin) arrived by car at the Clearstone Breeding Farm. They were accompanied by their staff, Peter Kim, Mike McDevitt and Ki Byung Yoon. Bo Hi Pak, special assistant and translator of Rev. Moon, arrived later the same evening from Washington D.C. After being greeted by the Canadian members, Rev. and Mrs. Moon met with Kenneth and Helen Kim, a Korean couple living in Ottawa. Helen Kim was a school classmate and friend of Mrs. Moon's in Korea.

After dinner Rev. Moon and his party were taken on a tour of the fur breeding operation where mink, fox, sable and chinchilla were being raised. Upon returning from this tour, Rev. Moon invited the approximately 40 Canadian members gathered to join him in the living room. There Rev. Moon spoke with everyone, until midnight.

Firstly, Rev. Moon expressed his displeasure that his visit had been announced to the general membership since he had earlier requested that it be kept quiet. The atmosphere was initially quite tense, but he then asked those that had never seen him to introduce themselves and also spoke to the Japanese women present asking each of them personally about their spouses. He offered personal guidance and made humorous comments to some. Rev. Moon then asked if any of the members had questions. In response to a question about Canada's providential role, Rev. Moon replied:

Canada used to be a British colony, didn't it? And you still consider the British queen as titular Head of State, right? Well, we can say that Britain gave birth to America; the same kind of theory can be applied here, in the relationship between Britain and Canada. Therefore, if America is male, Canada can be female. Therefore, Canada has the destiny to follow America's footsteps, not just in economics, but politics as well.103

Because Canada had become part of Europe due to directives given by the "temporary appearance" of Heung Jin, Paul Werner queried Rev. Moon concerning this issue. Paul asked if there was any special significance to which Rev. Moon answered:

Because of the relationship between Britain and Canada, spirit world may have said that way ... But [I] say from now on if you are working in conjunction with the American church, you'll have faster growth. Actually, throughout history Canada and America were kind of enemies. You had battles, right? ... but in general, Canadian people don't like America, do they? ... That's the kind of historical tendency and trend, but we have to overcome that. We must not think that way. We should work together.104

Sensing that outreach activities were not progressing as quickly as hoped and desired, Rev. Moon tried to instill a sense of hope among the members and commented:

It is not easy for you to witness to people, is it? But just wait a little longer, it will be much easier. The time has come. Suppose we rent major TV stations in Canada for 40 days and we broadcast Divine Principle for 40 days. To witness to the 20-30 million people in this nation is not a big deal; it is a piece of cake. It is not a difficult thing ... When we see winter, we feel like everything is frozen or almost everything is dead - even grass ... We don't see any life. But as soon as the spring comes ... we start seeing life ... This is the time we are facing right now. The spring has been coming up. You stay in this Canada at the northern tip of the planet earth. That is why you may not be fully aware of it, but [I] see that clearly.105

Rev. Moon was not only trying to provide the members with a sense of hope, he was probably hinting at future plans as well.

The next morning, Sunday, June 19, Rev. Moon conducted pledge service and asked only the "Blessed" members to participate. After the prayer, Rev. Moon spoke till 7:00 a.m. A significant point for the Canadian Church was that Rev. Moon directed Paul Werner to send pioneers to each of the Canadian provinces which in a very substantial way decentralized the Canadian church. The following is an excerpt of the exchange that led to the changes:

(Rev. Moon) Paul is there a Divine Principle lecture going on every day? There is no magic actually. Lecturing of the Divine Principle will parallel the increase of membership; ... All young people should be able to lecture Divine Principle every day, even if it is with one other person ... This is your youth; if you devote it to the Divine Principle, there is no better way to spend your youth.
Did you gang up together and try to expel Paul Werner from Canada, simply because he is tough and a German? Did you do that or not? ... Paul, how many centers do you have inside Canada?
(Paul Werner) At the moment four. We closed some because we prepared for the mobilization.
(RM) Why did you close them? ... How many state [provinces] do you have here in Canada?
(PW) Ten
(RM) Ten provinces. Then you have to have ten centers, one in each province. Tomorrow you dispatch people to all ten provinces. Do not hold in all the young people and major members under your wing. In order to develop, in order to make progress, send them out. They have got to be pioneers. [For example] If you let a pointer - hunting dog - get idle, that dog will not be effective ... It's a gigantic mission. We have to let all 25 million people know there is a way, that there is a life ... As you know, [I] declared that the age and time and era has come that everybody will go back to their home towns ... Now the time has come that we have to go back and restore our hometown.106

The result was a transformation of the Canadian movement that would have a profound effect on the development of the church for years to come. In retrospect it ushered in a new era.

After the speech Rev. and Mrs. Moon and their party toured the deer fields. At breakfast Rev. and Mrs. Moon were presented with a gift from the Unification Church of Canada (An Eskimo soap stone carving of a male hunter and a woman praying). Later that morning Rev. and Mrs. Moon and their party departed from Clearstone Farms for the Palgrave Grounds near Bolton, Ontario to watch their children, Un Jin and Hyun Jin, participate in the equestrian competition. After having lunch and watching the competition, the entire party departed in the late afternoon, by car, travelling to New York.

It was a short visit which lasted less than 24 hours, but it caused a significant transformation of the Canadian Unification Church. The following day, pairs of Unificationists departed for most of the Canadian provinces. The following words of Rev. Moon probably remained with them as they travelled:

... it is almost pitiful: there is such a small handful of Canadians and yet Canada is not so small. There is one thing famous in Canada. What is it? Canadian geese! The goose has a beautiful spirit and powerful courage to fly across the continent, ocean to ocean. Geese can even go across the Pacific Ocean. It is amazing! They are just birds. How about Canadian people? You should be better than Canadian geese.107

4. End of an Era

An organizational meeting was held several hours after Rev. Moon departed where it was decided how to immediately implement Rev. Moon's directives and send pioneers to each province. After members and maps were consulted, Mubina Jaffer and Jane Sharpe went go to St.John's, Newfoundland, Tom and Constance Weller to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Charles and Mari Casavant to St. John, New Brunswick. Jim and Yayomi Brennan to Winnipeg, Manitoba, Trevor and Ikuyo Brown to Regina, Saskatchewan, and Jacques Fontaine to Edmonton, Alberta. Fred and Maureen Kathan were assigned to Vancouver, British Columbia but did not go for a number of reasons, including the imminent birth of their second child. The mission was later assumed by Douglas and Fumiko White, who returned to their hometown from the United States, where they had both been working with the Unification Church.

Helene Dumont returned to Quebec City after having spent a short time in Montreal, while Nic Farrow became the leader of the fund-raising team, which was then based in Montreal. In Toronto, things remained unchanged as far as the leadership was concerned, but the mass exodus of members who had, until then been in Toronto, was a major change in itself.

The final months of 1988 were primarily occupied with the members establishing themselves in their respective cities and the leaders visiting the members throughout the country. Significant was the fact that Paul Werner, along with Franco Famularo and Robert Duffy participated in an outreach program in Korea during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. For almost a month they participated in a program, where they attempted to contact Canadians in Korea, in order to invite them to church sponsored activities, that were designed to introduce the Unification Church in its founding country, to people from all over the world.

Along with the fact that Paul was in the United States for much of 1988 due to earlier mentioned adoption procedures, this meant that the Canadian church was not directly guided by his leadership. This might have served as preparation for the soon to be experienced changes. His absence further contributed to the dismantling of the highly centralized organization that had characterized the church for most of the Werner period, not to mention earlier eras as well. As often was the case, the announcement of a change of leadership took everyone by surprise.

At a meeting with Rev. Moon in Irvington, New York, on December 20, 1988, several major leadership changes were announced. For example, a change in the leadership of the American church took place. Also, several elder Unificationist leaders, including Paul Werner, were assigned to newly created roles as World Itinerary Workers. Paul was at that time assigned to the Oceania Region.108 As earlier, it was not only a surprise, but a climatic change as well.

At the same meeting, Rev. Moon requested that a graduate of the Unification Theological Seminary be found to assume leadership of the Canadian church. Since none was found, Paul Werner was asked to recommend a successor and suggested that Franco Famularo take the position. Rev. Moon then further requested that Paul send him the photographs and resumes of three senior members, who would assume the role of president and vice-presidents of the church in Canada. Robert Duffy and Wesley Ramage were recommended, along with Famularo, who was then asked to serve as interim national leader until Rev. Moon made a final decision.

Upon his return to Canada, Paul announced the changes. For some it was a tearful moment as they had grown fond of his leadership during the sixty-four months he had spent in Canada. For others, however, including Paul himself, it was a change they had looked forward to. The change marked the beginning of a new phase for the Canadian church. Nevertheless, Paul and Christel Werner remained in the memories of Canadian members and left their mark on the Canadian church, for many years to come.


1. Personal Testimony of Rev. Paul Werner. Toronto: Unpublished. May 1985. p. 157. (hereafter Werner Testimony)

2. Ibid. p. 1. (See also "Christ is on Earth - He Has Returned." Today's World. August 1986. pp. 26-30.)

3. Ibid. p. 2.

4. Ibid. p. 7.

5. Ibid. p. 8.

6. Ibid. p. 9.

7. Ibid. p. 11-13.

8. Ibid. pp. 11-13 and p. 21.

9. A History of the Unification Church of Austria. Unpublished. 1989.

10. Werner Testimony. p. 80.

11. According to Unificationists practice, couples who were married before joining the Unification Church also participate in the Blessing of their marriage by Reverend Moon. Couples who were married before joining are often referred to as "Previously Married Couples."

12. A History of the Unification Church in Germany. Unpublished. 1989.

13. Author's personal notes and diary. (Also see Werner Testimony. p. 158.)

14. Shirley Inamori. "Revival in Canada." Today's World. October 1984. p. 32. (hereafter Inamori)

15. Werner Testimony. p. 126. (See also New Hope News. July 1975.)

16. Inamori. p. 32.

17. At the time all church owned properties were heavily mortgaged. These included the Toronto properties on Bellevue and Danforth Avenue, the Montreal property and the two farms. Carrying costs proved to be a heavy burden for the Canadian Church. The author recalls Paul Werner commenting upon receiving a financial report, "All I hear is that we are in the red. Is there anything black?"

18. Inamori. p. 33.

19. Sun Myung Moon. "Resurrected Kingdom of God." March 26, 1978. Reverend Moon, at one point in the speech said, "Our way of life is the cross of heartle, and heartle is nothing but obedience like a lamb and sacrifice like a cow and total love like a dove." p. 12.

20. Chronology. 1983-1984.

21. Authors personal notes. January/February. 1984. (At the time the Canadian 6/49 lottery prize had not been claimed by the winner.)

22. Inamori. p. 32.

23. For reports about the Associate Membership drives in Great Britain see Today World. April 1984. p. 22-26. and Unification News. April 1984. p. 7.

24. Inamori. p. 33.

25. "Grand Totals for Associate Membership." Result sheets of campaign which included individual totals. (There were 184 cancellations which brought the total to 4,143). Also see files of Associate Membership Forms signed in Canadian Unification Church archives.

26. The form was entitled Unification Church - Associate Membership Form.

27. Inamori. p. 34.

28. Ibid.

29. George Gallup and Jim Castelli. The People's Religion: American Faith in the 90's. New York, London: MacMillan. 1989. p. 14.

30. For an excellent study of Canada's religious climate during the 1980s please see. Reginald Bibby. Fragmented Gods: The Poverty and Potential of Religion in Canada. Toronto: Stoddart. 1987, 1990. Also by the same author and publisher. Unknown Gods. 1993.

31. Donald Posterski and Irwin Barker. Where's a Good Church? Canadians Respond from the Pulpit, Podium and Pew. Winfield, BC: Wood Lake Books. 1993. p. 123.

32. While in Canada, Paul Werner authored four books, each several hundred pages in length. Those published were: Heaven Down to Earth. (1985) In Harmony with the Eternal. (1986) Tapping the Unlimited Reservoir. (1986) Psyche and Spirit. (1988) Toronto: HSA-UWC. Each of these titles were basically transcriptions of talks Paul gave while in Canada. The transcripts were later edited and compiled according to various topics. Paul also produced an unpublished personal testimony and later published a series of seven booklets which were basically select chapters extracted from each of the above titles. The booklet titles were The Essence of God, The Power of Prayer, The Heart of Witnessing, The Reality of Spirit World, Blessed Marriage and Family Life, Communication, Perspectives on ... the Principle, Religion, History, and the World. (Each of these titles were edited by Nancy Barton, with the assistance of Bill and Pepper Parker and Franco Famularo.)

33. Paul Werner. Heaven Down to Earth. Toronto: HSA-UWC. p. 6.

34. Chronology. 1983-1988. (All of the Werner's travels are chronicled).

35. During Paul Werner's time in Canada, beginning in July 1984, the legal directors of the Unification Church in Canada were: President: Franco Famularo, Vice-President: Denis Desjardins and Secretary/Treasurer: Wayne Lamond. In 1987 Cornelia McWilliams became Secretary/Treasurer and was later replaced by Robert Duffy in 1988.

36. The author was Paul Werner's assistant for most of the period from 1983-1988. The comments of member's will remain anonymous.

37. Although there were developments in many other areas of Unificationist activity, full-time membership growth in the United States and Western Europe was almost at a standstill during the 1980s. (See unpublished histories (1989) of each of the Unification churches in these countries). On the other hand, in several Oriental countries (Japan, and Thailand for example), and in some parts of the developing world (Brazil and Zaire for instance) there was significant membership growth throughout the 1980s.

38. For an exhaustive account of Reverend Moon's case see: Carlton Sherwood. Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Washington D.C. Regnery Gateway. 1991. Also Constitutional Issues in the Case of Reverend Moon. Herbert Richardson, ed. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. 1984.

39. New Vision For World Peace: Reverend Sun Myung Moon. New York: HSA-UWC. 1988. p. 61.

40. Letter by Very Reverend Professor Petro Bilaniuk. August 27, 1984. "Ad Hoc Committee for Religious Freedom - Canada.

41. The Religious Freedom Digest. Ad Hoc Committee for Religious Freedom - Canada. Fall 1984.

42. Report of Ministers Outreach. In Unification Church of Canada archives.

43. Three of the sixteen clergymen were United Church ministers in Toronto. One, Reverend Ugo Monaco, became affiliated with the Unification Church in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

44. One of the United Church ministers who attended was seriously reprimanded by his church board, his congregation and representatives from United Church headquarters in Toronto. His job was so to speak "on the line." (He will remain nameless).

45. "Clergy warned of trips offered by Moonies." The Toronto Star. May 10, 1988. p. A13.

46. Michael McAteer. "Moonies launch huge publicity campaign." Toronto Star. May 4, 1985.

47. The Unification News was mailed to several hundred Christian ministers on a monthly basis until the early 1990s.

48. Robert Duffy. "New Hope for Christian Ministers." Today's World. May 1986. p. 39.

49. Robert Duffy. "Ministers responding to Church outreach: 1,000 Gather in Toronto." Unification News. May 1986. p. 1.

50. Ibid. p. 4.

51. Unification Alliance. Statement of Purpose. June 1986.

52. Robert N. Bellah. "Civil Religion in America." Religion in America. Edited by William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah. Boston: Beacon Press. 1966, 1968. p. 7. (Rousseau's outline was: Belief in "The existence of God, the life to come, the reward of virtue and the punishment of vice, the exclusion of religious intolerance and that all religious opinions are outside the cognizance of the state and may be freely held by citizens.)

53. Joe McWilliams. "Interdenominational Revival Meeting in Toronto." Unification News. December 1986. p. 14.

54. Ibid.

55. Alan Wilding. "Canada: Revival in Our Time." Today's World. January 1987. p. 40.

56. Ibid.

57. Bruce J. Casino. "USA, NCCSA, and the Tao of Social Action." Currents. Summer 1992. p. 6.

58. Ibid.

59. Financial Statements of HSA-UWC. December 31, 1983. Peter J. Newhouse. Chartered Accountant.

60. Financial Statements of HSA-UWC. December 31, 1988. Newhouse Hyland. Chartered Accountants.

61. Part of Unificationist practice is that once blessed in marriage by Reverend Moon members are required to offer a period of separation from their spouses. The marriage is not consummated on the wedding night. A number of factors are considered. For example a number of categories existed for those blessed in the July 1, 1982 wedding of 2,075 couples in New York. The following are some of the conditions: For those couples, where the wife was 30 years of age at the time of the wedding, a 40 day period of separation was required. Thus they could consummate their marriage by August 1982. For those where the wife was under thirty, a 3˝ year period of separation was required. The 3˝ year period began at the time of engagement and those who participated in the 1982 wedding were engaged at different times between 1978-1982. Thus, members consummated their marriages at different times between 1982 and 1986.

62. See MFT result sheets in Canadian Unification Church archives.

63. People Serving People: The Projects of Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Movement. New York: HSA-UWC. 1985. p. 16. (hereafter People Serving People).

64. Chung Hwan Kwak. "The Formula Course & Blessed Couples' Tradition. Today's World. August 1982. pp. 8-10. (This article provides a theological perspective on fundraising and witnessing.)

65. Chronology.

66. Franco Famularo. Personal Diary.

67. Mike Brosgall. Revenue Canada Audit Report of HSA-UWC Canada. November 1987. (Acquired from Revenue Canada through the assistance of Richard Fitzsimmons, a Toronto lawyer representing HSA-UWC). (hereafter Brosgall Report)

68. Financial Statements of HSA-UWC. 1982, 1984, 1987.

69. Letter to Department of Revenue from Fitzsimmons MacFarlane. Legal firm representing HSA-UWC. October 18, 1985. (Letter by Colin Albert)

70. Letter by Rick Owen of Revenue Canada. February 23, 1987.

71. Brosgall Report.

72. Letter by G.J. Murray of Revenue Canada. September 1, 1988.

73. Letter to Franco Famularo, then Secretary-Treasurer of HSA-UWC Canada, from Patricia Gorie of Revenue Canada. August 20, 1991.

74. Financial Statements of HSA-UWC. 1982-1990.

75. Interview with Wes Ramage. February 23, 1994.

76. Financial Statements of HSA-UWC. 1991 and 1992.

77. New Vision for World Peace. p. 26.

78. People Serving People. p. 28.

79. Chronology.

80. Internal CAUSA Report. 1988. (Reverend Paulo Ferreira of the Volunteers of Christ Center did the radio broadcasts in Portuguese.)

81. People Serving People. p. 24.

82. Lists of Participants at ICUS Conferences between 1972 - 1988.

83. People Serving People. p. 18.

84. Susan Delacourt. "Cult Awareness Week stirs up hornet's nest among U of T students." Globe and Mail. October 1, 1986. p. A16.

85. Ibid.

86. See for example Paul Wilson. "Door is open for cults in Halton high schools." The Spectator. (Hamilton). April 22, 1983. p. 1. or Paikin Nolan. "I've changed my mind on cults in school." The Spectator. May 17, 1983.

87. David Kingsley. "A biased attitude toward cults." The Spectator. May 26, 1983.

88. (CEGEP is a French language acronym that stands for College d'Enseignment General et Professionel, which means College of General and Professional Instruction. In Quebec students attend high school until the 11th grade and then attend CEGEP for two years before attending University or for three years toward obtaining a professional diploma. Students are generally seventeen years and older.)

89. From the author's diary and observations. He represented the church at most presentations given at Canadian institutions during the 1980s.

90. Internal Unification Church report. June 1991.

91. Sun Myung Moon. "Day of All Things and Liberation." (June 14, 1988.) Today's World. August 1988. p. 9.

92. "A Historic Miracle: Conference with Heung Jin Nim." Hugh and Nora Spurgin. "The Worldwide Activities of Heung Jin Nim." Chung Hwan Kwak. "Guidance from Rev. Kwak." Takeru Kamiyama. "Uniting with True Abel." Victoria Clevenger. "The Power to be Pure." Today's World. January 1988. pp. 21-37.

93. One reason given for the consolidation was due to an expected mobilization of the world wide membership to Korea. The mobilization was expected during the mid 1980s but did not take place till early 1989. Thus, to prepare for the apparent mobilization some church centers were closed to conserve financial resources and to provide increased flexibility.

94. Chronology. (Much of this account is based on the author's eyewitness account as well as contributions by Carolyn Bing Wo Ivanusa made in July 1987.)

95. It was stressed that Reverend Moon's presence in Canada not be made public. Therefore, attendance by church members was kept to a bare minimum.

96. Interview with Peter Hume. June 28, 1987.

97. The 'Pledge' is a short service in which Unificationists dedicate their lives to serving God. The Pledge takes place on the first day of every week, month and year and on church Holy Days all across the world at 5:00 a.m. (local time). On Holy Days pledge usually takes place at 7:00 a.m.

98. A 228 acre property located in the vicinity of the 95 acre Clearstone Farm. More deer were being ranched at the second farm.

99. Unofficial transcript of audiotaped dinner time conversation with Reverend Moon. June 25, 1987. (translated by Peter Kim)

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid.

102. Unofficial transcript of Reverend Moon's informal dinner time talk. June 27, 1987.

103. Unofficial transcript of Reverend Moon's speech. June 18, 1988. Clearstone Lodge. Canada. p. 4. (translated by Peter Kim)

104. Ibid. p. 5.

105. Ibid. p. 8.

106. Unofficial transcript of Reverend Moon's speech. June 19, 1988. Clearstone Lodge. pp. 1-2. (translated by Bo Hi Pak) (In the transcript, Paul responds that there are eleven provinces in Canada. This was either a mistake in transcription or simply a mistake. In 1988, there were ten provinces in Canada.)

107. Ibid. p. 9.

108. "Best Wishes to our New Leadership." Today's World. January 1989. p. 2.

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