By Dr. Sang Hun Lee
Chapter II - Ontology Based on the Unification Principle (Part 6)
Section F - Existing Form of Being
From the standpoint of the Unification Principle, every existing being has a definite Yang Sang and form in order to maintain its existence. Then, what is the difference between Yang Sang and form, and their actual concepts? As already explained, the Yang Sang refers to circular movement and it is a concept which deals with the co-existence aspect of the subject and object elements. Circular movement is a necessary aspect and condition for both the subject and object to co-exist. There can be neither the rotation of an object without a subject nor the existence of a subject without an object revolving around it.
On the contrary, the existing form means the form or condition which the subject and object respectively have as individual truth bodies. Prior to G-T action, the subject and object have to possess conditions and forms as individual truth bodies and existing beings. Considering man, before marriage a man has to prepare the conditions of being a male person and bridegroom such as education, health, age, a means of living, virility, and so on; and a woman has to prepare the conditions of being a bride such as education, health, age, posture, fecundity, countenance and the like. All these conditions are necessary forms for the male and the female to exist as bridegroom and bride. After these conditions are fulfilled, the man (subject) and woman (object) marry and carry on family life by maintaining a harmonious G-T action. This G-T action is the very living Yang Sang of the couple. Through this example, the difference between the concepts of the Yang Sang and form should surely have been clarified. In the long run, the existing Yang Sang means the co-existing form which consists of both of them (subject and object) existing together, whereas the existing form means the self-existing form with which each individual is endowed. There are the ten following existing forms:
(1) Self-Existence and Prime Force
All existing beings tend to constantly maintain their identity. But in order to maintain one's identity, there must be a certain force which is always active. This force is the very Universal Prime Force. Human beings never become animals or plants. Even after death man lives eternally as a human being. It is due to the ability of self-existence endowed by God that man maintains himself for eternity. All other beings are the same. But since living things have a specific duration of life, their self-existence has significance only during that duration. The force to maintain such self-existence is called Universal Prime Force.
(2) Sung Sang and Hyung Sang
As an individual is an individual truth body, it has both the aspects of inner, invisible character (Sung Sang) and outer, visible form (Hyung Sang). In this case the fact that it has both natures means it has the existing form, and when this individual performs circular movement through G-T action with other individuals, this is its Yang Sang.
(3) Positively and Negativity
For an existing being to exist, it must manifest positive or negative aspects both in time and space. In this case when an existing being with positivity performs the G-T action with any other being with negativity, this is the Yang Sang.
(4) Subjectivity and Objectivity
Every being has the aspect of existing in the two positions of either a subject or an object to another being.
(5) Locality and Location
Every being necessarily has a position; namely, an individual can exist only by taking a definite position. In other words, all existing beings have a quality which requires them to have a definite place to exist. Each and every being, from atoms to heavenly bodies, has a certain position. There are countless positions in the universe, and all these positions without exception are to be occupied by certain individuals. The place itself is called "locality" while the taking of a place is called "location."
(6) Relativity and Bond
As the G-T action was presupposed at the creation, it is every individual's nature to have relations with others and to find it a necessity to be connected with one particular being.
This necessity is called a "bond." For example, when Mr. Park and Miss Kim marry, since they are opposite sexes, it is in their natures to relate to each other as the opposite sex. This aspect of their nature is "relativity." But for Mr. Park to marry Miss Kim out of many women was due to some indispensable, necessary condition. This aspect is the bond.
(7) Action and Multiplicativity
Every individual has a tendency to exercise his influence over others. This is "action." It is also in every individual's nature to change or develop due to influence from others. This is "multiplicativity." The original meaning of the concept multiplication or multiplicativity is to make a new individual, but in Unification Thought multiplicativity means not only bringing forth a new individual, but also means the appearance of a new form or new nature. As change and development may be considered manifestations of new forms or new natures, these phenomena are also looked upon as multiplicativity.
(8) Time and Space
Every being necessarily occupies a definite space because it has form, namely a material aspect, and it also has a time aspect since it is to preserve itself (identity-maintenance) throughout the change processes, such as development, growth, perfection, decline, movement (motion), and the like.
(9) Mathematical Reason and Principle
Every being is a created being and thus necessarily contains the Logos. Logos is a complex of reason and principle, and simple reason is both intellect and mathematical reason. Mathematical reason is also contained in every individual. Here mathematical reason does not refer to a number itself but rather to the reason which deals with numbers, and to the principles which act upon individuals as basic laws. This requires a definite number and system. For example, in a spherical body, it is a matter of course that it has such existing forms as mentioned above because it is an existing being. Besides these forms, there is also a content which pertains to a definite number. Namely, the mathematical formula 4p r2 is formed by measuring the sphere and defining the sphere's surface area. This formula shows that four times the circumference-diameter ratio multiplied by the squared radius (4p * r2 ) is the numerical value of the spherical surface. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter (2r) is known to be 3.1416:1. This means that every sphere is endowed with a definite law which is able to express such a numerical value. And since this law contains the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (p ), the formula 4p r2 is a unified system which consists of several elements (laws). Such a system of laws is called "principle" in Unification Thought. Yet a principle (system of laws) is considered to contain a kind of reason. It is well known that the discovery of natural laws requires rational speculation, namely research. But even laws discovered through such research have sometimes proved to be wrong. Thus rational speculation is considered necessary to discover laws. This means that reason (intelligence) was very much required in creation. Because laws have this mathematical aspect, the reason required to set up these laws (principles) is called mathematical reason.
(10) Infinity and Finiteness
As every being is a concrete individual and not the whole, so each being may be regarded as having finiteness. If any being has an infinite size, nature or capability, it will no longer be an individual nor a creature. However finite the individual may be, there can be no finiteness apart from infinity. For example, although man's physical mind in his Sung Sang has a finite feature, it is connected with God's Sung Sang in the spirit mind, and man's heart originates in God.
In other words, the infinite Sung Sang (God's Sung Sang) is contained in the finite Sung Sang, and man's physical body, his Hyung Sang, is connected with God's Hyung Sang (hyle, matter). The search for the cause of all beings, from the physical body to cells, molecules and atoms, is clarified in the understanding that man's physical body is connected to the infinite hyle (matter) of God. Particularly, since the whole creation was created with eternity as its standard in principle, inorganic matter is to maintain the eternity of its Universal Image and a part of its Individual Image through circular movement, whereas living beings maintain their eternity through multiplication. In other words, all beings contain even infinity of time (eternity). This then, is what constitutes the infinity and finiteness of the existing form of being. [Note: It should be noted that this infinity and finiteness are not the game sort of relative concepts as Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. Infinity and finiteness do not correspond to Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. Infinity exists in both the character (Sung Sang) and form (Hyung Sang). Finiteness does too. Besides, they exist in the other existing forms such as action, multiplicativity, positivity and negativity, and the like. Accordingly, infinity and finiteness should be dealt with as another existing form.]
There may be other aspects to the existing form, but judging from the Unification Principle, since the existing Yang Sang should be presupposed, the existing form should be expressed in terms of the basic concepts concerning the quadruple, and the ten mentioned above are regarded as the basic existing forms.
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