Unification Thought

By Dr. Sang Hun Lee

Chapter II - Ontology Based on the Unification Principle (Part 5)

Section E - The Yang Sang ("Status-image") and the Position of the Existing Being

It was made clear above that every being taking after the Original Image had to form the Inner Quadruple Base inwardly as an individual truth body, and the Outer Quadruple Base outwardly as a connected body. This formation of the Quadruple Bases is the being image, namely, the existing structure taking after the Original Image. The existing being with this structure does not remain stationary but incessantly moves. Its type of movement is a kind of revolution, that is to say, circular movement. In other words, when the subject and object form the Quadruple Base through give-and-take action inwardly and outwardly, circular movement develops. The Unification Thought calls this the Yang Sang of being. (The detailed explanation of the Yang Sang is given in the section "The Status of Existence of the Four Position Foundation," in Divine Principle, pp. 32-39).

Here let me explain the difference between the concepts of the being image and the Yang Sang. As the content of both the being image and the Yang Sang is the formation of the Quadruple Base, it can be seen that the two concepts are similar. But there is quite a difference between them. The being image is a concept which deals with the structure and elements only, whereas the Yang Sang is a concept which deals with the movement. As frequently clarified, the being image, as it takes after the Original Image, consists of the Universal and Individual Images of the existing being. The Original Image has the Quadruple Base structure; namely the system which is formed by the four elements in the four positions is the Quadruple Base. Furthermore, viewed from the time perspective this formation of the structure is called the Chung-Boon-Hap action. Thus reflecting the Original Image, every existing being is called an individual truth body or a connected body. After all, all forms of the Quadruple Bases of the existing beings take after the structure of the Original Image. Then, does circular movement, as an aspect of the existing beings, take after the Original Image too? From the standpoint of causality, it may take after some aspect of the Original Image, and by such reasoning, the circular movement might reflect the non-angled nature of the love (G-T action) of God (Original Image); but as the world of the Original Image is one of absolute dimensions outside of time and space, there is no actual circular movement in it, because circular movement requires time and distance (space). [Note: Accordingly, a moving body is not able to stand still at a definite point in space or at a definite moment. If we maintain that a moving body stands still at a definite point in time and space, this accepts Zenon's assertion that a "flying arrow stands still", and also accepts the communist sophistic and dialectical viewpoint of movement which says "a moving body simultaneously exists and does not exist at a definite point at a definite moment." In essence a point has no size. But if a point actually exists, it naturally has size, large or small, which means that it occupies space. Within space, movement can not stand still, because to stand still is not movement. Therefore there is no true point in the spatial world. Accordingly, a moving body never stands still in space but constantly moves. In strict terms, a point has only position and no size, and is dealt with only in mathematics.]

1. The Yang Sang Of Existing Beings

As mentioned above, the Yang Sang refers to circular movement. Namely, it means a state of being displaying circular movement through the formation of the Quadruple Base.

Whenever a creation has formed a four position foundation by fulfilling its three objective purposes through O-D-U action, it begins to perform global spherical movement in order to maintain its three-dimensional existence. (Ibid., pp. 32-33)

But it should be noted that to say the existing being displays circular movement by the formation of the Quadruple Base does not mean that all of the four elements in the four positions move in circles. As already mentioned and clarified in the section on the Original Image and individual truth body, in the Chung-Boon-Hap action which completes the Quadruple Base, the origin is Heart or Purpose. Accordingly the "origin" (Chung) of an Identity-Maintaining (Static) Quadruple Base in the created world is not an actual existing being, but rather the quadruple's "division" (Boon) (subject and object) are existing beings, while the "union" (Hap) is nothing but a union of the division (subject and object). And in the Developing (Dynamic) Quadruple Base also, the "origin" is Purpose, and not an existing being. Although the "multiplied body" (Hap) is a new being, it is an outcome of the movement. Consequently the subject and object are the only elements involved in the circular movement of the Chung-Boon-Hap (Origin-Division-Union) action or in forming the Quadruple Base.

What is the concrete meaning of the circular movement of these relative beings? It means that an object revolves centering on the subject. Needless to say, in this case, the relative beings perform the G-T action with a common purpose, and in the process of the G-T action, the object revolves around the subject. The movements of particles and heavenly bodies are examples of this. Electrons revolve around the nucleus of protons and the nine planets revolve around the sun. It is a matter of course that the proton and sun are the subjects. Yet it should not be overlooked that within the circular movement both the subject and object rotate on their own axes. This is because when we consider the Quadruple Base of subject and object we find that within both the subject and object, there are Inner Quadruple Bases containing inner subjects and inner objects. The inner objects revolve around the inner subjects and thus create the inner rotational movements. For example, as the moon revolves around the earth, the earth rotates on her own axis, and as the earth revolves around the sun, the sun rotates on its own axis. This means that the object elements within the moon, earth, sun, electrons, and protons also revolve around their subjective elements. Astronomy says that not only the solar system but the galaxy as well, to which the solar system belongs, rotates. It is said that centering on a nuclear system of fixed stars, the galaxy with a diameter of several hundred thousand light years rotates once every two hundred forty million years. Thus the simultaneous rotation and revolution actually means that every existing being is an individual truth body in relation to itself and a connected body in relation to others. For that reason, by means of the G-T action between the subject and object, circular movement develops both internally and externally.

Then why do all the existing beings rotate? Does circular movement develop by chance or necessity? The circular movement is necessary, because it is caused by the purpose or dual purposes of the existing being. As touched on before, every existing being has both a purpose for the individual or self-existence, and a purpose to improve the whole. Due to these purposes every existing being moves in circular motion. In other words, there can be no existence of the individual or whole without circular movement. When an electron rotates on its own axis and revolves around the proton, these motions occur both for self-existence and for the maintenance of the eternity of the atomic structure. The same is true for the rotation and revolution of the earth. Thus in order to maintain the eternity of existence of both the individual and the whole, the object rotates and revolves centering on the subject. In this case the subject, the center of the circular movement, also revolves centering on a new subject and thus becomes an object in the higher dimension. The sun, along with other stellar groups, as an object revolves around a system of nuclear fixed stars which is the center of the galaxy in the higher dimension. Thus all existing beings, from the small atoms to the great cosmos, including the galaxy, form a hierarchy consisting of many levels of centers, and develop circular movement.

Then what is the center of the highest level of these circular movements? It is man. The highest center of these countless centers is man. Thus man is the supreme center of the circular movements of the individuals within the universe.

Again, every individual truth incarnation moves spherically, with the lower individual truth incarnations in the objective position to the higher ones. The center of the spherical movement of this object is in the individual truth incarnation which is in the position of subject, on a higher level. Likewise, the centers of countless such symbolic individual truth incarnations are connected with one another from the lowest to the highest. Man, the individual truth incarnation in image, is the highest and central created being. (Ibid., p. 36)

When many objects revolve around one subject at orbits of regular intervals or at different angles, spherical space is formed centering on the subject, -and the movements of all the objects are synthesized into one spherical movement. This is shown in Figures 14 and 15.

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Fig. 14 When the orbits are at regular intervals Fig. 15 When orbiting angle is different

The rotation of the earth corresponds to Diagram 14, and in this case the center, its subject, seems to be a line. The movement of atoms may correspond to Diagram 15 and in this case the center looks like a point or a ball.

To say the circular movements of many objects centering on one subject form a spherical shape means that all individual truth bodies have a spherical shape. It is a matter of common knowledge today that atoms or heavenly bodies have a spherical form, and we can easily understand that seeds or fruits have spherical shapes too. Besides we know that the fertilized eggs of animals and various kinds of bird's eggs are spherical.

All these examples indicate that in principle the basic form of every individual truth body is spherical. That the shapes of plants, animals, and men seem to have nothing to do with the spherical form may be due to the fact that the spherical forms were transformed so as to be more favorable to the realization of the purpose of each individual.

[Note: The same physical conditions do not exist in the formation of the spherical forms between heavenly bodies such as the earth and of fertilized eggs or fruits. In other words, the formation of the spherical forms of the heavenly bodies and the formation of the spherical forms of fertilized eggs (cells) are not necessarily the same. The former surely originate in circular movement, while the latter are caused by the liquidity of cytoplasm which is like a water drop. Yet the Unification Principle does not regard these spherical forms as the accidental outcome of liquidity. In creation, an idea has to be set up first in the Original Image and then the individual truth body is created according to that idea. It is not valid to regard spherical form as a result of the liquidity but rather to consider that the cytoplasm was made liquid so as to ultimately create the spherical form.
From such a standpoint, it is possible for us to understand that the spherical forms of heavenly bodies, fruits, seeds, and eggs all originated from the same common motive, and it is possible for the Quadruple Base of the Original Image to be expressed in a sphere. As already mentioned, since the world of the Original Image is outside time and space, inside and outside are one; large and small are one; and the past, present, and future all exist in the eternal present. Accordingly it is possible to say that the four elements of the Quadruple Base consolidate at one point centering on Heart, and if that point is expanded, it may be expressed as a sphere.
Particularly, in the Static Quadruple Base, since the fourth position is nothing but a union of the subject and object, the components are the three elements of Heart, subject and object. To say the subject and object perform G-T action centering on Heart means that the subject sometimes becomes the object, and the object sometimes becomes the subject. When a husband and wife have give-and-take, sometimes the husband is subject and sometimes object to his wife. Such a phenomenon is due to the nature of the Quadruple Base in the Original Image. That is to say, in the Original Image, the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang can change positions with one another. This nature of the Original Being may perhaps be shown diagrammatically as a circle. When the needle of a compass is turned to the object from the subject at the radius of SH (distance between subject and Heart) centering on the heart point (when subject stands at the position of object), a semicircle appears with S 0 as its diameter, and at the same time the object comes to the position of subject, its locus also forming a semicircle. Here finally a full circle is made. From such a standpoint, the Original Image may well be called a circular image, for the Original Image centers on Heart, and Heart is the starting point of love, and the nature of love is harmony which has no angles, like a circle. As such, the Original Image is a circular one and in the first stage of the creation every creature was made circular. However, as the creation progresses, every being develops the peculiar shape suitable for its own purpose and function.]

2. Position Of The Existing Being

Here position refers to that of the subject and object, which, strictly speaking, are in different positions.

As already mentioned, every existing being has within it the two elements of subject and object (paired elements) as an individual truth body, and as a connected body every being performs the give-and-take action in a subject and object relationship with another being. In this case, the subject and object are not at the same level. The relationships of subject and object are those of superior and inferior, active and passive, dominating and submitting, central and dependent, creating and conserving, and positive and negative. The subject being lies above the object being. The subject is superior to the object. Such a difference in the positions of subject and object is due to the following facts:

In the first place, in the Original Image, Sung Sang (subject) is mind which has positive functions (intellect, emotion, and will), whereas Hyung Sang (object) is undetermined passive matter. In other words, all things were created by mind's dominion over material (matter).

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Fig. 16 Circular Expression of an Original Image

In the second place, in the relationship between positivity (subject) and negativity (object), the difference of positions is inevitable, because positivity has bright, full, prominent, hot and warm qualities, whereas negativity has dark, vacuous, concave, cold and cool qualities.

Thus in the relationships between the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity of the Original Image, the position of the subjects is above, and that of the objects is below. In other words, the Original Image itself has an orderly structure. For that reason in the world of beings (created world), differences of positions and levels exists. If there were no differences, all the existing beings on the same level would have a mind to dominate each other or to refuse each other's dominion, and this- universe would eventually be thrown into confusion. Order is necessary in the natural world and human society. Therefore, even if we disregarded the fact that all creatures take after the Original Image, there would have to be differences of positions between subjects and objects if only to maintain order in the created world. How much more the order is necessary then, when the created world takes after the Original Image. How can this sort of difference of positions between the subject and object bring about order? The order originates in the fact that the object revolves around the subject due to the purpose for the whole. An object rotates on its own axis due to the purpose of the individual and revolves around the subject due to the purpose of the whole. Then the subject, which becomes an object, revolves around another subject on a higher level, in addition to rotating on its own axis for the purpose of the individual. Thus, in the created world there is a series of countless centers, and man occupies the supreme position of this series. In other words, man is the center of the whole universe, which forms a vast, orderly, organic body.

Here a further explanation about the fact that man is the center of the universe should be given. We know, of course, that man merely lives on the earth just as animals and plants do. Then how can he be the center of the universe? The earth on which man lives revolves around the sun as its object, and the sun itself revolves, in the object position, around the system of nuclear fixed stars as a member of the galaxy. From such a standpoint, man along with the earth on which he lives is one of the most minute beings in the universe. judging from a physical viewpoint alone, man can hardly be the center of the cosmos. As a physical being, man is between 5 and 7 feet tall, and weighs 100-300 pounds or so. But from the standpoint of the purpose of creation, the situation takes a new light. No matter how vast the universe is, it was created to bring pleasure and joy to man. Namely, it was created as the object of man. Man is the dominator and the entire universe is the dominated being. Comparing the relative importance of man and the universe according to the purpose of creation, human value is greater than the united value of the entire universe, because an object exists for the subject. Therefore there are two kinds of centers which are named the physical center and the purpose center. The former is called the Hyung Sang center; the latter is called the Sung Sang center.

As already explained, every existence has both character and form; accordingly, its purpose is two-fold. One purpose pertains to internal character and the other to external form. The relationship between the two is exactly the same as that between character and form in any individual being. (Ibid., pp. 41-42)

Therefore, the physical centers of circular movement are the physical subjects at the various levels (the nucleus in the atom, the sun in the solar system, etc.), but their purpose center (Sung Sang center) is only man. In view of the purpose of creation, the electron revolves around the proton (nucleus) not only to maintain the atomic structure (purpose for the whole) but also to bring joy to man indirectly. And the earth revolves around the sun not merely to form the solar system (purpose for the whole) but also to bring joy and pleasure to man indirectly through the changing of seasons. The purpose for the physical center (purpose for the whole) of a lower level is no more than an individual purpose when considered from the higher level. For example, at the level of atom, the purpose of the electron, to preserve the atomic structure through revolving around the proton (purpose for the whole) is, at the molecular level, a purpose for the individual atom. The purpose of the earth to maintain the solar system through revolving around the sun (purpose for the whole) is, at the galactic level, nothing but a purpose for the individual solar system itself. Thus in physical movement, the subordinate purposes for the whole are superordinate purposes for the individual. Such physical purposes for the whole are superordinate purposes for the individual. Such physical purposes for the 'Individual and whole are called Hyung Sang purposes whereas the ultimate purpose of every individual to contribute to human life directly or indirectly is called the Sung Sang purpose. Now it has been clarified that the Sung Sang purpose of all individuals other than man is to serve man, and the expression that man is a cosmic center means that man is the Sung Sang center. This is shown in Fig. 17.

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Fig 17 The Relationship between the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang Purposes of the Existing Beings

As frequently mentioned, through all things staying in their definite positions, various levels of centers (subjects) are formed, and the center of the highest level is man. This means that the higher the subject level is, the broader its scope of dominion becomes, and since man is the highest center, the whole universe is under his dominion. Though man doesn't have direct dominion over the entire universe at present, the day will come in the future when, through the further development of science, human beings will directly dominate other heavenly bodies from the earth. Even though man's scope of dominion will always be restricted to some extent, this does not mean that man is far from having dominion over the whole universe. This sort of restriction applies only to a man on the earth who is limited by physical conditions, but the restrictions of time and space do not exist for the spirit man free of his physical body.

3. The Various Types Of Circular Movement, And Developing Movement

The circular movements of each existing being are not identical, but rather vary. It was clarified previously that every existing being must have the circular motion of G-T actions both inwardly and outwardly in order to exist. But the actual phenomena of the natural world show that there are a lot of exceptions to this. Molecules, which are composed of various elements, do not rotate inwardly, and the cells composed of molecules stand still without any rotation or revolution, as do the tissues made up of cells and the organs composed of tissues. Animals and man are the only beings that move, but still they do not move in a completely circular motion. If a man rolled around like a top, he would surely find it difficult to maintain his life because he would get too dizzy. Thus most phenomena in nature do not coincide with the fact that every existing being rotates and revolves. This seeming contradiction can be resolved through reaffirming that all existing beings are connected bodies with dual purposes. Before, I made it clear that atoms and heavenly bodies rotated and revolved due to their dual purposes. In order to realize the dual purposes for both the individual and the whole, every being performs circular motion. Therefore, strictly speaking, circular movement is a condition for existence as well as a Yang Sang (Status-Image). In other words, for existing beings to exist they can not but become connected bodies. Accordingly, every existing being is both in the position of subject and whole to subordinate beings, and in the position of object and part to superordinate beings. To say that an existing being develops circular movement inwardly and outwardly means it is functioning as a connected body. In short, circular movement is a means or condition through which a connected body can function. In other words, for a connected body to perform the function of its dual purposes, conditions other than circular movement may be necessary. There may be many ways of realizing the dual purposes of a connected body, according to the positions of the various beings such as molecules, cells, plants, animals, and man. Let a more concrete explanation be given about this.

(i) Types of Circular Movement

Let me first deal with the conditions necessary for realizing the purpose of the connected body at the molecular level. All molecules are composed of atoms and exist as either inorganic or organic matter. From an historical viewpoint of the development of the earth, organic matter was created far later than inorganic matter, which has been proven to be the fundamental material of the earth. Considering the significance of the development of the earth from the standpoint of creation, the earth was surely created as the environment for human life, as man's object of beauty and dominion, and as the place for the various minerals, plants, and animals to exist. If this is true, then inorganic matter (the basic building block in development), that is, all the elements in the form of molecules, must compose all the minerals, plants and animals, and at the same time, solidify the earth so as to make it suitable for the life of all things. If it were sparse like cotton, or gaseous like a cloud, there could be no evolution of minerals and no habitat for plants or animals. The function of molecules (inorganic matter) as connected bodies may thus be considered to solidify the earth and for that purpose, circular movement which requires spatial intervals at the molecular level could not occur since the molecules need to be tightly connected through chemical unions. Furthermore, in order to maintain the particular characteristics of different minerals such as gold, silver, iron, etc., the components must be completely and tightly connected with each other. Thus, the molecular level of connected bodies because of its specific dual purpose performs its function through chemical union rather than circular motion.

In the second place, let us deal with the function of the cell. The cell is the basic unit that composes living things. For that reason, unless it is fixed in a definite position as part of a living body, the continuity of the shape and structure of the individual can not be maintained. If the muscle cells which compose the heart (cardiac muscle cells) began to travel here and there, the structure of the heart (cardiac structure) would crumble immediately. The position of a cell which is a component of a living body must be fixed in order to realize the purpose for the whole. Rather than moving itself, it is connected with other cells through the circulation of blood and lymph. Since the cell itself is an individual truth body, it performs the give-and-take action between its nucleus and cytoplasm which are its inner subject and object parts; however, this give-and-take action is not circular movement either but rather a form of biochemical action. This same situation applies to tissues and organs.

Now let me deal with man as an individual truth body or connected body. In the first place there is the inner Chung-Boon-Hap action of the individual truth body, namely the inner give-and-take action which establishes harmony between the physical mind and the spirit mind.

In the second place, the coordination of the organs (stomach, heart, lungs, etc.) through the blood and nerves makes the physiological action perfect. The Sung Sang aspect of man's purpose for the individual is to enjoy living in truth, goodness and beauty in addition to perfecting his personality through raising his standard of heart, and the Hyung Sang aspect of his purpose for the individual is to multiply children as well as to have food, clothing, and shelter to make the physical body sound. Furthermore, as a connected body, a person can and should do his best to fulfill his responsibilities to the persons he is in touch with through the relations of upper and lower, left and right, before and after, and so on. For example, he should be dutiful to his parents, respectful to his teachers, and should love and educate his children. In the final analysis, to perform the give-and-take action as a connected body is a matter of loving the object as a subject, and following the subject as an object.

Next, what is give-and-take action like in social life? It may be similar to that between individuals. A government is to enforce good policies in the political, economic and social realms to improve the social welfare of its people, and the people are to be grateful to the government and follow its policies. The same should be true for relationships, such as those between teachers and pupils, employers and employees, and officers and soldiers. Particularly in economic life, the harmonious circulation of capital, raw materials, and goods should be established between different industries, between the cities and rural areas, between different enterprises, between production and consumption, and so forth.

Through the above explanation it may have been clarified that all the levels of connected bodies other than atoms have no physical circular movement, and that the types of give-and-take action are different on each level. But as mentioned before, all connected bodies have common features in that no matter what type of give-and-take action they perform, it is a method of, or condition for, fulfilling the dual purposes as a connected body.

The circular movement of atoms, the chemical union of molecules, the biochemical action of cells, the physicochemical action of tissues and organs, the physiological action of the human physical body, the Sung Sang action between the physical and spirit minds, the harmonious give-and-take in social life, and the like, are the same from the standpoint that all these connected bodies can not but perform G-T action in order to realize their dual purposes.

However, we can consider the most basic and typical of all these forms of give-and-take action, for according to the principle of resemblance, at least one of these will surely directly reflect a certain aspect of the Original Image. Which then is the most basic form? It may well be the circular form; that is, the circular movement shown in atoms and heavenly bodies is the essential form of the give-and-take action.

To say all the movements of heavenly bodies including the earth and the atoms which compose the material of the whole universe are circular movements, in other words, to say the movements of both the macroscopic and microscopic worlds are circular, means that the basic type of give-and-take action of connected bodies is circular movement. Then how can we understand the rest of the patterns of give-and-take actions? They may be considered as transformations in order to be suitable for the positions and purposes of the beings. Circular movement was transformed to chemical union to allow the close connection of molecules; to biochemical action owing to the colloidal liquidity of cells; to physiological action due to the specific structure of the human body; to mental action centering on heart and value, due to the peculiar feature of the duality of flesh and spirit; to the circulation of commodities and money due to the economic and social peculiarities, and the like. From such a view, all these patterns of give-and-take actions may be included within the category of circular movement.

(ii) Development and Spiral Movement

The above-mentioned circular movement was chiefly physical and spatial, but there is another kind which may be called circular movement in time. This is a developing movement, and as developing movement is one of the important categories of philosophy, let us consider it in detail.

The concept of development generally means a changing process which moves irreversibly forward. To put it concretely, it is a process of changing to a high phase from a low one, to a new phase from an old one, to a complex phase from a simple one and so on. Such processes of change are irreversible. The processes such as the growth of plants and animals, multiplication, the formation of the universe, or the evolution of living things, never retrograde to the previous phases. For example, a seed grows into a sprout, then into a stem, branches, leaves, flowers, fruit and then develops into many more seeds than existed before; this process of growth is irreversible. The formation of the universe going from a gaseous to a liquid, and then to a solid state, may also be regarded as the process of development.

Thus development is an irreversible directional movement. Accordingly, the features of developing movement are finality (goal), time, and stages of development. The irreversibility of direction can not be formed without the establishment of a goal (purpose) and the change can not become fixed without a lapse of time. [Note: Communist philosophy recognizes only the direction of developing movement, and not its goal. It asserts that development occurs due to the contradictions within material and that the direction is decided secondarily and automatically by the physicochemical laws acting in material. Their philosophy does not recognize that a goal is established first and then the physicochernical conditions are prepared in order to direct toward the goal. If an established goal is recognized, this admits a teleological cosmology which would finally result in the breakdown of atheistic communism. Therefore it is inevitable that communists deny established goals in order to adhere to their atheistic philosophy. But one has to regard an egg as having the possibility (goal) of becoming a chicken, and a seed can not but be looked upon as containing the possibility of becoming a new fruit after maturity. How much more valid this view of an established goal is, when considered from the standpoint of the Unification Principle which asserts the creation theory of the cosmos.]

Furthermore, the reality of stages becomes apparent in the development shown in the above examples. When a plant bears fruit, a new stage, the seed stage appears. After a chick hatches from an egg, it grows to become a mother hen, and then starts a new stage by laying an egg. In the formation of the cosmos as well, it is said that there were the three stages of gas, liquid and solid. In the evolution of living things, the evolution occurred not through a gradual and continuous process but through stages. Consequently, it has become obvious that development is a directional movement with a goal (purpose), time and stages.

Then what shape does developing movement take? According to its directivity toward the goal, it takes the shape of a straight line, and according to its stages, it would be circular. But as development involves time, its form will be spiral-the united form of a straight line and circular forms, as shown in Figure 18.

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Fig. 18 Development in Spiral Form

Thus development is a kind of circular movement. When a solid body is performing circular movement and a force acts along the direction of the circular movement, the circular movement changes into a spiral one.

What are the concrete contents and significance of a developing movement which displays a spiral form like this? As already mentioned, development is a phenomenon which appears in the formation of the dynamic Quadruple Base. Namely when the subject and object perform the action of give-and-take centering on a definite purpose, the outcome appears with direction toward the accomplishment of the purpose, and this itself is development.

In other words, development occurs through the dynamic Chung-Boon-Hap process. Before, it was said that new multiplied bodies appear as a result of the dynamic Chung-Boon-Hap process. In the Unification Principle, the terms "multiplication" and "development" are often taken to mean the same thing. But strictly speaking, the multiplied body means a new stage of development. In plants, for example, the stage of new fruits is multiplication; in animals, the stage of the newly born offspring is multiplication, and so forth. Development is, after all, the dynamic inner and outer C-B-H action of an existing being. To say development takes the shape of spiral or circular movement means that all development is performed with similar contents in every stage and with a definite period.

Why does development take the form of circular movement and pass through stages? It is because of the principle that every existing being has to perform circular motion in order to maintain its existence eternally. As already mentioned, every existing being performs circular movement which appears by the G-T action between the subject and object. Here the following question may arise. If a physiological action occurring within the physical body is circular movement, and an animal's growth is development; and if, as mentioned before, circular movement is indispensable for maintaining eternal existence; why isn't physical action enough to maintain the eternity of existence? Why is it necessary to multiply offspring, a whole new stage of development? Why is a spiral movement required in addition to circular movement (physiological action)? Atoms and heavenly bodies maintain their eternity of existence through circular movement alone. Why can plants and animals not do the same?

It is because atoms and heavenly bodies are mere physical matter, while plants and animals are vital beings. Physical beings have only space while vital beings have both time and space. Since, in principle, time and space are inseparable, physical beings can not disregard time, but because the same forms are repeated in physical change, time may be comparatively ignored. The time for the earth to revolve around the sun now is 365 days, and this period was the same a hundred years ago, a thousand years ago; the seasonal changes in these 365 days have always been the same. In other words, there are no real changing aspects involved. Therefore just one period of the circular movement can be regarded as the eternal movement of the earth, if one disregards time. However the movement of vital beings, such as plants and animals, is quite different. A vital being has a time limit (life span) because of the necessity of multiplication given to living things at the creation. In other words, vital beings must have succeeding generations and multiply posterity according to the law of vital creation. "Be fruitful, and multiply and fill the earth (Genesis 1:28). "And God blessed them, saying 'Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.'" (Ibid., 1:22). Accordingly, for a limited, vital being to multiply, another circular movement is required. Needless to say, because vital beings also have material Hyung Sang aspects, they develop specific circular movements (physiological action). But these are only the functions for maintaining existence during a life span, not for multiplication.

Furthermore, the time aspect of multiplication (new generations) should be a new period whose contents are different from the previous one, because succeeding generations means a numerical increase through multiplication and also a diversification of features. For example, in the period of the parents, there are only two persons (beings): male and female; but in their children's period, there are more than two beings in number and a variety of features of these persons appears. Because of this numerical multiplication of lives and the diversification of features, vital beings can not but have a succession of generations and eternity of existence. Therefore vital beings do need another circular movement. Thus unlike mere physical beings such as inorganic matter, vital beings are required to perform circular movement both in time and space, and this circular movement, in relation to the lapse of time, is the so-called spiral movement of development.

It should be added here that the vertical G-T action between the subject and object (the replacement of the former generation by another) appears in spiral movement as the G-T action between the positivity and negativity in development. This doesn't mean that the object revolves around the subject. Rather, to put it concretely, when a mother animal (subject) gives birth to her children (object), the children become new subjects and give birth to new children (objects). This is the vertical G-T action of development and spiral movement manifests aspects of this vertical G-T action.

(iii) Direction of Developing Movement

Why does developing movement have direction? As already mentioned, to say movement has direction, means that the movement is heading toward a definite goal. Development occurs through the dynamic Chung-Boon-Hap action and this action occurs centering on a definite purpose. The goal toward which development heads is established by this purpose. Actually, the purpose itself is a goal. The purpose of a fertilized egg is to be a chicken, and with this as a common purpose, G-T action occurs between the embryo and the white and yellow, which results in a chicken. That is, the purpose that the egg contained was the very goal it reached after development.

Then what established the purpose? In an egg, the purpose was established by the life within the embryo. In other words, the life within the embryo which was to become a chicken established the goal and direction of its movement.

Life, which is called a gene in genetics, means the consciousness latent in material, and it has different aspects according to each individual. Thus, the gene should be regarded as an individual truth body, and it should have both the aspects of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. The Sung Sang aspect is life in the true sense and the gene (DNA) dealt with in science is a bearer of life and not life itself. The DNA is nothing but the Hyung Sang aspect of life. In other words, the actual structure of DNA should be regarded as the Hyung Sang in relation to the Sung Sang which is life. Thus since life is consciousness, it is no wonder that it establishes a definite purpose and goal.

In the Unification Principle, such life is called the autonomy and dominion of the Principle itself. There are no existing beings which are not based on the Principle, because the Principle means rules, Logos, reason, law and mathematical reason. Accordingly, the Logos gives an individual being a larger or smaller amount of intellectual elements, and when a being is given mostly mathematical law and less intellectual elements, the individual becomes quite passive, ruled by physicochernical law. When a being is given more intellectual elements, it becomes active and autonomous, because the intellectual elements are nothing other than reason.

Since reason is part of consciousness as well as part of intellect, the autonomy of the Principle is conscious and purposeful. Thus the principle acting upon inorganic matter is merely physicochemical law, but when acting upon living things, like organic matter, the Principle is autonomous, conscious, and purposeful. Life is the very autonomy of the Principle. Therefore not only physicochernical laws but also autonomous functions act together within the physical body of a living thing. Therefore the G-T actions within living beings display developing movement with direction.

To the contrary, since the movement of inorganic matter is controlled by simple law, this movement becomes repetitious or circular. Needless to say, since inorganic matter is also a created being, it is true that it has both the purposes of the individual and the whole. But since its purpose is only given to it from outside, inorganic matter itself is never conscious of it. The earth revolves around the sun only because of the purpose given it from outside, and not because the earth is conscious of it.

Communist philosophy regards conflict between inner contradictory elements as the cause of all movement, including development. It considers even reversible repetitious movements like chemical reactions as contradictions. Communists can not clarify the difference between developing and repetitious movements. Because they look upon life as being only a peculiar form of mere physicochernical action rather than regarding it as consciousness latent in material, it is inherently impossible for them to distinguish between the two movements. Marx took the phenomenon of water boiling at 100'C as an example to explain the abruptness of revolution in social development. However, this example is not related to development, but only to repetition. This foolish act of Marx originated in his lack of discrimination between development and repetition.

(iv) Purpose, Law, and Necessity in Development

Here let me touch on the purpose, law, and necessity in development, for they have often been dealt with in philosophy.

Jumping to a conclusion, the Unification Principle maintains, as could be known from previous sections, that there is purpose in development. It is the natural conclusion of a creation view of the universe. But materialism, and communist materialism in particular, strictly denies any purpose in development, and judging from their atheistic theory, it is no wonder.

Which is the more valid and rational view? The followers of communism recognize both law and direction in development but not goal or purpose. Is this a true view? Is the establishment of direction possible without a goal? Communists say that direction appears from the necessity of principle (law). As the law of causality acts upon the natural world, cause A always gives rise only to effect B and not to effect C. Therefore if a cause as well as the law of causality can be known exactly, the effect can also be foreseen exactly. When a fire is lit in the fireplace, smoke necessarily rises up out of the chimney. The sprouting of plants in spring and bearing of fruit in fall are the necessary outcomes of natural law. They are caused by the weather conditions and the attributes of the plants, and there is no need to recognize any mysterious purpose or plan in it. If any mystery were admitted, natural phenomena would lose their laws and an unscientific and mythological view of nature would be established. However, this is a groundless assertion in philosophy. The acceptance of necessity and law in nature is only a scientific standpoint, not a philosophical one.

Since natural science deals only with phenomena and keeps a neutral attitude toward all philosophy, natural science transferred the issue of purpose in the explanation of natural phenomena to philosophy in order to maintain the purity of science. For example, the cause of smoke in the case of a fire is in the realm of science, but the reason and motive for one to light a fire is out of the scientific realm. The phenomenon that a union of a bull and cow gives birth to new life is a scientific phenomenon, but the reason for a man to raise cattle belongs to the purpose of man. In this way, the scientific and philosophical realms do not necessarily coincide when dealing with natural phenomena. Of course, the contents of philosophy should not contradict scientific truth, but philosophy should establish a farther reaching universal truth which includes scientific truth. If it is not only a scientific assertion but also a philosophical assertion that necessity is part of development only due to the laws present in natural phenomena, the following question should be answered. Why does every natural thing have law? Materialism recognizes the cosmic essence as matter, and mind as its product. Then the laws should originally be contained within the matter itself without any regard to mind. Yet matter itself should originally be undetermined material. If that is true, then how is it possible for matter as an undetermined and unrestricted material to become determined? Communist philosophy can offer no solution to this problem. Communist philosophers say that law is the attribute of matter itself. This is mere dogma and conjecture. A true man of science may only say, "Judging from the current scientific knowledge, legality can not but be regarded as an attribute of material. But there is room for possible change in this concept as science develops further." Frankly speaking, communist philosophy is controlled by science so it is far from being a true philosophy which can lead science.

Since Unification Thought maintains that the universe was created, it strongly maintains that development has purpose, and regards all the laws as necessity, as preparation for realizing the purpose of cosmic creation. Acceptance of God's existence will not destroy purpose and necessity but rather further assure and stress their existence by the logic which shows that purpose and necessity originate in the Logos.

Thus Unification Thought looks upon all the laws of the natural world as necessary, because they were prepared beforehand for the realization of a definite purpose.

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