By Dr. Sang Hun Lee
Chapter II - Ontology Based on the Unification Principle (Part 2)
Section C - The Theory of the Original Image (Divine Image)
I will now explain about the ontology of the Original Being (God). The reason the Original Being must be dealt with in ontology is that all existing beings are patterned after the Original Being. Accordingly, the attributes of the Original Being should first be clarified in relation to their contents and structure. The Original Being's attributes are God's polarity and His other natures, which together are referred to in the terms of Unification Thought as "Original Image" or "Divine Image." Divine Image in the narrow sense means polarity and "Individual Imaged," while God's other attributes are called "Divinity."
1. The Contents Of The Original Image
Original Image means the attributes of the Original Being. These attributes are the 91 the attributes and modalities of all individual beings. According to the interpretation of Unification Thought, the Original Image has both content and structure.
Here the "content" means each of the natures composing the attributes, and the "structure" refers to the mutual relationships among the natures. By the Principle of Creation, the Original Image can be explained as having the polarity of Sung Sang (Original Sung Sang) and Hyung Sang (Original Hyung Sang), the polarity of positivity and negativity, Individual Images, and Heart, Logos, and creativity. More precisely, within the Original Image, the Divine Image consists of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity, and Individual Images, while the Divinity consists of Heart, Logos, and Creativity.
a. Divine Image
In the first place, the Sung Sang of the Divine Image is the internal attribute of the Original Being, that is the cause of the invisible part of all things (human spiritual body, the mind of animals, life of plants, activeness of inorganic material, etc.). Accordingly, it means the mind of the Original Being and implies the function of intellect, emotion and will. God's will is the subject to the human mind, is also the subject of human intellect, emotion and volition [will]." (Ibid., p. 67)
Here intellect refers to the function of recognition including sensibility, understanding, and reason; emotion refers to the function of feeling, such as feeling joy, anger, etc., but it is different from Heart; and will refers to the function of intention and the impulse to realize the purpose of Heart.
The mind of God (Sung Sang) contains another level of polarity inside itself. In other words, another level of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang exists within the Original Sung Sang itself. This inner level of Sung Sang is called "Inner Sung Sang", and this inner level of Hyung Sang is called "Inner Hyung Sang." Therefore, actually the above mentioned intellect, emotion and will do not belong to the whole Sung Sang, but only to the Inner Sung Sang of mind, and there is another part of the mind, the Inner Hyung Sang, consists of idea (concept) and principle (law). According to the Principle of Creation though the internal character cannot be seen, it assumes a certain form, so that the external form resembles the internal character as its visible form. (Ibid., p. 22)
In this relationship, the external form may also be called all second internal character," so together we call them "dual characteristics," or "dual essentialities." (Ibid., p. 22)
This means that there are elements of another Sung Sang and Hyung Sang (Inner Sung Sang and Inner Hyung Sang) within the Sung Sang of the Original Image.
Next, Hyung Sang (Original Hyun Sang) is the external attribute of the Original Being, the cause of the visible aspect of all things (human flesh body, animal's body, physical structure of plants, substantial part of inorganic matter, etc.). Accordingly, this Hyung Sang consists of matter and the ',"Universal Prime Force." The Original Being has the Universal Prime Force in itself as the unifying force, and this Universal Prime Force and matter form the Original Hyung Sang. Thus Sung Sang and Hyung Sang are complementary, but Sung Sang is always in the subject position, whereas Hyung Sang is in the object position; that is, the internal Sung Sang is subject, and the external Hyung Sang is its object.
Positivity and negativity are also attributes of the Origin being which has Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. So, strictly speaking they are the direct attributes of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. Thus, Sung Sang has two kinds of aspects: the positive aspect and the negative aspect.
The positive aspects of man's Sung Sang or mind are aspects such as activity, brightness, delight, inventiveness, etc., and the negative aspects are those such as passivity, melancholy, sadness, agony, etc. There are also positive aspects of man's Hyung Sang or flesh body such as the nose, forehead, elbow, etc. (protruding and convex parts) and negative ones such as the nostril, ear hole, lap, etc. (sunken or concave parts). These kinds of aspects can also be seen within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms as well as among human beings. This is due to the fact that both the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang of the Original Being have positivity and negativity within themselves. In the reciprocal relationship between positivity and negativity, positivity is the subject and negativity is the object.
Besides these attributes, there is another in the Divine Image of God. This is the attribute of God which includes the Individual Images, the fundamental prototypes of each individual being of the creation. In other words, all the existing beings, including human beings, have the general aspects of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity, and each creature also has a specific aspect of individuality which reflects the Individual Image within the Original Being. According to Unification Thought, each face, head, etc. is different from every other because each creature takes after one of the countless Individual Images in the Original Image. These three aspects, then, are the attributes ,of the Original Being; and as they have a kind of image (aspect), we call them together the "Divine Image." The polarities of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity, are called the "Universal Image" because of their universality throughout the whole creation, and they are distinguished from the Individual Images. [Note: For more convenient repetition of terms, the Universal Image of the Original Image is to be called "Original Universal Image", and the Individual Image of the Original Image is to be called "Original Individual Image."]
b. Divine Character (Divinity)
Besides the Divine Image (narrow sense) the Original Being has several specific qualities which are Heart, Logias and Creativity. Of these, Heart is the essence of the personality aspect of the Original Being; therefore Heart is the most fundamental attribute of the Original Being. God is generally called omniscient and omnipotent, but in the Unification Principle these are regarded as secondary and posterior in importance, while Heart is regarded as the most fundamental and proper characteristic of God. Some philosophers regard God as the absolute mind or as reason, but these too are secondary, judging from the Unification Principle. Of all the attributes of the Original Being, Heart is the most fundamental and essential, and causes all the other attributes to interact. The Word (Logos) and creation appear, due to Heart, for Heart has purpose within itself and direction to realize that purpose. Because one of the essential natures of Heart is joy, and since it is impossible for joy to maintain itself without an object, this Heart necessarily has purpose and direction. Heart is also the starting point of love, because another essence of Heart is emotional "combinability." Love originates from this "combinability." Thus Heart is the essential attribute of the personality aspect of the Original Being. It is because the center of give-and-take action is Heart (Purpose) that the Unification Principle indicates that the action of give-and-take in the creation occurs centering on God.
Now let me explain about the Logos. According to the Gospel of John, Chapter 1, verse 1, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God and the Word was God." The Divine Principle indicates that the universe was created by the Word, and "It is written (John 1:1) that Logos is in the objective position to God." (Divine Principle, "Christology," p. 215) This Word means the Logos or natural law. To put it concretely, Logos is the combination of reason and law (principles), which in the Unification Principle is called the "Polarity of Logos."
In the meantime, since God, as the subject of Logos, contains dual essentialities within Himself, Logos, as His object, should also contain dual essentialities. (Ibid., p. 215)
Namely, Logos has the polarities of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity. Then what are the concrete contents of the polarity of the Logos? Its Sung Sang is reason and its Hyung Sang is law (principles). The unified body created through the action of give-and-take between the Sung Sang (Inner Sung Sang) and the Hyung Sang (Inner Hyung Sang) is Logos.
In the creation of the universe, the Logos performs give-and-take action with the material element (Original Hyung Sang), centering on Heart, and reveals both positive and negative aspects. This fact means that the Logos itself has both positivity and negativity.
There is another aspect of Divinity called "Creativity." It was because of this Creativity that the Original Being could create all the existing beings. The fact that man, as a created existing being, has the abilities of invention, discovery, manufacture, and initiative means that he was given these abilities by God.
God created man so that man could reach his perfection only by accomplishing his portion of responsibility. (Ibid., p. 55)
Creativity can be considered as nothing more than the ability to produce a new thing, and in this sense every creature has creativity. Take for example, the procreative power of animals and plants. However, man's Creativity is quite different from the autonomous fertility of plants and instinctive procreation of animals, because the God-like Creativity which God gave to man is a rational ability of Creativity, centered on Heart. Because he has a physical body, man of course possesses instinctive creativity as well as God's Creativity, but his ability to produce goods, originate new plans or projects comes from God's Creativity.
2. The Structure Of The Original Image
What is the structure of the Original Image? As mentioned before, the various elements of the Original Image are not separate, but rather are closely connected with each other in a certain order, and they are in a definite structural relationship. [Note: Here structure does not have the same meaning as if we were talking about the structure of a machine which is composed of parts (such as a watch). God is unique and transcendent and outside of space and time. Therefore, although God's attributes are many, they form one unity and are always present. God is not a composite. This may be compared to a wound up film whose attributes (people, events, and other things) form a unity (unified body) in the wound up film, and transcend time and space. When the film is shown on the screen, however, the persons and events develop within the order of time and space. The attributes of the Original Being are not like the parts of a composite. However, we can not but express those attributes in an analytical method just to though we were analyzing a composite, because all the words with which we have to explain the attributes of the Original Being, have been formed in history in order to express the phenomena occurring in time and space in the composite world.]
a. The Formation of the Four Position Base Centering on Heart
In a word, the structure of the Original Image is a quadruple system. As mentioned above, the Sung Sang and the Hyung Sang of the Original Image (Divine Image in the broad sense form a union through the harmonious action of give-and-take. The attributes of the Original Image (God) interact with one another. The action of give-and-take necessarily requires a center, and the center of the action within the Original Image is Heart. Thus four factors called Heart, Sung Sang, Hyung Sang, and Union form four positions and have a definite order. Namely they make a structure composed of these four positions, the "Four Position Base" (Quadruple Base). [Note: The concept of the Four Position Base in the Unification Principle is explained concisely in the following: "When, according to O-D-U [OriginDivision-Union] action, the origin is divided into two substantial objects, they assume the roles of subject and object respectively, and finally unite into one body. Thus three objective positions are fulfilled. Since these three objective positions are centered on the origin, four respective positions are formed altogether. This creates "the four position foundation" [Four Position Base]. (Ibid., p. 32) The Quadruple Base means the base composed of one origin [thesis], two divided substantial objects [division] , and one union [synthesis]. The origin here means God, or more concretely, God's Heart and Purpose; the two divided substantial objects are the Sung Sang (subject) and Hyung Sang (object); and the union means the union or new life. Figure 1 illustrates this.]
In the action of give-and-take, Sung Sang is always subject and Hyung Sang is object. Sung Sang is mind, and Hyung Sang is both matter and Universal Prime Energy. To put it more concretely, mind, which contains ideas and principles, means the functions of intellect, emotion and will. In other words, mind consists of definite functions, ideas and principles (laws).
Fig. I Quadruple Base (Outer)
(i) Inner Quadruple Base
As already mentioned, there is another level of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in the Sung Sang (Original Sung Sang) itself. These are the functions of intellect, emotion and will (Sung Sang parts), and ideas, concepts and principles (Hyung Sang parts). Accordingly, intellect, emotion and will are the subject part of the mind, while ideas, concepts and principles are the object part of the mind. For example, we always experience that there are both thinking and thought parts in the human mind. The mind always thinks of something such as past experiences, ideas, concepts, or future plans. This is due to the fact that these two elements exist in the mind of the Original Being itself. Here these two elements are referred to as the Inner Sung Sang and the Inner Hyung Sang. Since Sung Sang and Hyung Sang perform the action of give-and take, this Inner Sung Sang and Inner Hyung Sang perform the action of give-and-take centering on Heart and form the union which is the Quadruple Base composed of four parts appears (See Fig. 2). This is called the "Inner Quadruple Base."
(ii) Outer Quadruple Base
Figure 1 shows that the Inner Quadruple Base formed within the Original Sung Sang (subject element) itself, does, as the subject factor, form another Quadruple Base through its action of give-and-take with the Original Hyung Sang (object element). We call this larger Quadruple Base the "Outer Quadruple Base." It is therefore possible for us to understand that there are two kinds of Quadruple Bases Inner and Outer Quadruples in the structure of the Original Image.
Fig. 2 Inner Quadruple Base
Here, I will explain about the Hyung Sang of the Original Being. Hyung Sang (Original Hyung Sang) is regarded as the ultimate cause of the material aspect of all the existing beings. According to the Principle of Creation, all creatures (man, animals, plants, molecules, atoms, etc.) even though their dimensions are different, consist of an invisible Sung Sang part equivalent to mind, and a visible Hyung Sang part equivalent to body (matter).
This ultimate being must be the First Cause of all beings, containing the absolute and subjective character and form. This First Cause of our existing world we call God. We call God's subjective character and form His "essential character" and "essential form." (Ibid., pp. 23-24)
This Hyung Sang of the beings means matter or material and can be thought of as equivalent to the philosophical term "hyle."
Shape and structure are, of course, contained in the Hyung Sang. But here this Hyung Sang is ontologically regarded as the hyle, for from ancient times, the concepts of hyle and eidos have been the main objects (problems) of philosophy. However, there is no way to clarify the true character of hyle philosophically. We can only look forward to further scientific research. The current view is that it is a certain energy which exists in both particle and wave form. The Unification Principle does not clarify whether the energy of the force in the Original Being is the same energy as that which is analyzed in physics as having the properties of particles or waves. However, the Principle does say that the force is the basic power which causes all creatures to exist. It is called the Universal Prime Force. Even without Einstein's energy formula, E=mc2, we can perceive that power acts in every existing being. This self-existing absolute Universal Prime Force is the very force of the Original Being (God).
Which element of the quadruple of the Original Image this force belongs to is a moot question. As a matter of course, it should belong to the Hyung Sang, because the Universal Prime Force can be regarded as force which is not yet determined. Of course, it should be argued that the Universal Prime Force which causes creatures to exist should have a direction, and for that reason the Universal Prime Force could be looked upon as determined. But, as mentioned before, (looking at it analytically for more convenient understanding) the Universal Prime Force, which has direction, was originally undetermined; but through the action of give-and-take with the Sung Sang element, centered on purpose, it became a union having direction.
(iii) The Inner Structure of the Hyung Sang
Now, let me give a more concrete explanation of the Hyung Sang. I feel it necessary to distinguish between the viewpoint of the Unification Principle and the traditional concept of matter. The traditional concept viewed matter as undetermined, pure matter. But though such a view of matter may seem presumptive, actually such matter can not exist. The Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in the Original Being are not completely disparate. In other words, mind and matter are not essentially disparate, but rather have common elements in the world of ultimate cause. Their difference in the Original Being is not one of nature, but one of concentration, since God is the God of oneness. We can judge this from the fact that mind is conscious of matter, and matter is responsive to mind. For example, nerves and muscles which are matter are moved by mind. Therefore, the Divine Principle regards Hyung Sang as the second Sung Sang, and says that:
This indicates that materials have certain elements through which they can respond to man's intellect, emotion, and will. Such elements form the internal character of matter, so that every creation is able to respond to human intellect, emotion, and will, though the degree of response may vary. (Ibid., pp. 37-38)
Even if the hyle (Hyung Sang) of the Original Image is something which exists both as a particle and wave, it can not be just a pure particle nor just a pure wave, but it is sure to have direction and law. Direction and law are a kind of Sung Sang. Therefore hyle itself is a union. Analyzing it for convenience, hyle is the union formed through the interaction of its own Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, centering on a definite purpose. Figure 3 illustrates the inner structure of the Hyung Sang (Original Hyung Sang).
Since this structure is also an inner one, it may be regarded as a kind of inner quadruple base. However, this name is apt to be confused with the Inner Quadruple Base mentioned before, and because it is not essential in order to explain about the existence of being, the inner structure of the Hyung Sang is not called an inner quadruple base. If a name is needed, it may be called the quadruple within the Hyung Sung.
Fig. 3 Inner Structure of the Hyung Sang
(iv) The Identity-Maintaining (Static) Quadruple Base, and the Developing (Dynamic) Quadruple Base
Now I touch upon the identity-maintenance and the development of the form of the Original Image's structure. The structure of the Original Image has both the tendency to sustain its self-identity and also to develop to a higher stage. In other words, the Original Being both remains as the union of its attributes, and also creates new beings. The creativity of God means that on one hand God maintains His self-existence, and on the other hand that He creates new things. Dealing with this in view of the structure of the Original Image, there are two kinds of Quadruple Bases, an unchanging, "Identity-Maintaining Base" and a changing, "Developing Quadruple Base." Taking for example a family, when a man and woman become husband and wife, their conjugal unity lasts throughout their lives. That is, the Quadruple Base composed of the four elements -- purpose, man, woman, and conjugal union (purpose, subject, object, and union) is unchangeable and maintains its self-identity throughout their lives. At the same time, the married couple produces children who are quite different from their parents and who form new generations. Accordingly, the quadruple composed of these elements -- purpose, man, woman, and children (purpose, subject, object, and multiplied body) is developmental and dynamic. The reason that both aspects are present in all the Quadruple Bases in the creation is that both aspects exist in the structure of the Original Being. To put it concretely, in the structure of the Original Image, there is both an identity-maintaining, unchanging, static Quadruple Base, and a developing, changing, dynamic one. The former is the Identity-Maintaining (Static) Quadruple Base and the latter is the Developing (Dynamic) Quadruple Base. Then what is the concrete function of these Quadruple Bases? Let me put it this way. In the first place, the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple, whether an Inner or Outer Quadruple of the Original Image, maintains the unity. The Inner Quadruple maintains the Sung Sang (Original Sung Sang) itself through give-and-take action between the Inner Sung Sang and the Inner Hyung Sang, and the quadruple formed by the union of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang through the give-and-take action is the Outer Quadruple. (See Fig. 1)
God contains within Himself dual essentialities which exist forever. Through Universal Prime Energy, these two form a mutual or reciprocal relationship which develops into an eternal give and take action. The energy produced through this process is the force of give and take action. Through this force, God's dual essentialities establish a reciprocal base. Ibis results in the "foundation of existence" upon which God, Himself, exists forever. (Ibid., p. 28)
This refers to the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple. Because the Original Image has this identity-maintaining aspect, every creation always tends to maintain a definite shape and character.
In the second place, let me touch on the Developing Quadruple. The Principle of Creation reads,
When, through Universal Prime Energy, the dual essentialities of God enter into give and take action by forming a reciprocal relationship, the force of give and take action causes multiplication. This action causes the dual essentialities to separate into two substantial objects centered upon God. (Ibid., p. 31)
This means that, through this interaction, God's Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, His attributes, create all beings, His objects. When the two aspects (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang) of the Original Image perform the give-and-take action, they form not only the union, but in the same action they also form the multiplied bodies. They give rise to multiplication even though they are performing the same action. In other words, in the latter, the action is not identity-maintaining and conserving, but generating; not completing but developing; not stabilizing but transferring; not remaining but changing. This kind of quadruple is called the Developing Dynamic Quadruple Base. (See Figure 4)
Fig. 4 Developing Quadruple Base (Outer)
Then why did different results come from the same structural elements of the quadruple? Because Heart, the center of the interaction, has purpose. Since the Original Being is self-existing, it is inevitable that it acts to sustain itself. For this reason, the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple, centering on Heart alone, came into existence. This phase is the stage wherein Heart does not yet pursue purpose. Yet, since Heart is God's fundamental attribute and Heart must pursue its goal in order to realize its purpose, this purpose factor acts upon the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple which then becomes developmental and dynamic, bringing about new beings. The Divine Principle indicates that the give-and-take action occurs centering on Heart as follows:
Seen from this aspect, the universe is the substantial manifestation of the invisible God, occurring through the give and take action between His essential character and form, centered on the purpose of creation. (Ibid., p. 40)
This developing and dynamic base is actually the Outer Quadruple, or the "Outer Developing Quadruple." However, not only the Outer Quadruple but also the Inner Quadruple is developing. Therefore, the Outer Developing Quadruple is formed, based on the "Inner Developing Quadruple."
(v) The Inner Structure of the Logos (the Inner Developing Quadruple)
What is the Inner Developing Quadruple? This is the quadruple which forms the inner structure of the Logos namely the quadruple which gives rise to principle and law or Word.
As mentioned above, though the Logos is one of the Divine natures, it is God's object, and the Logos itself has polarity, just as the Original Image does. This means that the Logos has a quadruple structure, which is an inner one. In other words, the shape of the inner structure of the Logos is the same as the inner structure of the Sung Sang, mind (Inner Quadruple). The only difference is that the former is developing and dynamic while the latter is identity maintaining and static. Logos is the created being brought about by the developing movement of the Inner Quadruple. Then, why did the Inner Quadruple develop? It developed because the purpose factor acted upon it. As the Heart inclined to realize its purpose, the Inner Sung Sang and Inner Hyung Sang interacted to fulfill that purpose, and as a result the Logos appeared as the object attribute of the Original Being. Let me give a more concrete explanation. The Inner Sung Sang, the function of intellect, emotion and will, and the Inner Hyung Sang, ideas (concepts) and principles (laws), gave rise to the multiplied body (new life) through their give-and-take action centering on purpose (the purpose of creation). That is, they gave rise to the Logos. In this give-and-take action, reason in the Inner Sung Sang and law in the Inner Hyung Sang may be understood as playing the main role to fulfill the purpose. Accordingly, the Logos is neither simple reason nor simple law. When we say that the universe was created by the Logos, if the Logos is regarded as reason alone, then there is no explanation for the laws which act upon the creation. And if the Logos is looked upon as law only, then there is no explanation for the intellectual aspects of things, such as the structure and shape of existing beings, or the purposeful function of living beings. This is why the Logos should be regarded as the union (synthesis) of the polarity of reason and law. This inner structure of the Logos is the inner structure of the Original Sung Sang in creation. It is shown in Figures 5 and 6.
This is how God created the whole universe with the Logos. This two-stage Developing Quadruple is called the two stage structure of creation. As the Original Image's Sung Sang has such a structure, man, who is a created being, also forms a two-staged structure in the creative process, thus taking after the creative structure of the Original Being. In inventing or producing anything, the thinking (Inner Developing Quadruple) precedes the manufacturing (Outer Developing Quadruple).
b. The Chung-Boon-Hap Action or the Origin (Thesis)-Division-Union (Synthesis) Action
As already mentioned, since the world of the Original Being (God) is outside of time and space, the Original Image (God 's attributes) has no spatial structure, but rather all its attributes are completely united. However, to clarify the content of the Original Image, an analysis using the concepts of time and space becomes inevitable. This is because language itself, the means of expressing the truth, was developed and formed in the world of time and space. It is composed of concepts which connote the facts of time and space. The above mentioned concept of the quadruple is dealt with in terms which particularly imply the spatial aspect of reality. But space can not be understood separated from time. Therefore it is also possible for us to understand the Original Image from the aspect of time.
Fig. 6 Outer Developing Quadruple Base
The action of Chung-Boon-Hap (C-B-H) (Origin-Division-Union) deals with the Original Image in relation to the time spectrum. In other words, the quadruple is the concept which deals with the factors of the structure, whereas the action of Origin-Division-Union is the concept which deals with the formation process of that structure. After all, the structure of the Original Image is composed of four factors, and it is completed through a process of three stages. According to the Principle of Creation, every creature has to grow through the three stages of Formation, Growth, and Perfection, for the Original Being is based on the number three. Then why is the Original Being based on the number three? It is because "God is the absolute reality, the existing neutral center of the two essentialities; therefore, He is the reality of the number 'three'." (Ibid., p. 53) This means that the Original Being has three stages the absolute, the relative, and the united (synthesized). These three stages in the Original Being are nothing other than the action of Chung-Boon-Hap (Origin-Division-Union or Thesis-Division-Synthesis).
An actual lapse of time exists only in the created universe. Therefore it would seem that the action of Chung-Boon-Hap can exist only in the creation. But since the created world is a result, there should be, in the world of the Original Being (God), an ultimate cause of these resultant phenomena.
In this manner, God, as the origin is divided into two separated substances, after which these two again unite to form one body. We call this process "origin-division-union (Chung-Boon-Hap) Action." (Ibid., p. 31)
Accordingly, the prototype of the action of Chung-Boon-Hap, that is to say the three stages which are called the absolute, the relative, and the synthesized (united), necessarily exist in the world of the Original Being. The Chung (Origin) of Chung-Boon-Hap occurring in the created world is equivalent to the Absolute in the Original Being (exactly speaking, the Heart or Purpose of God), the Boon (Division) to the relative polarity, and the Hap (Union) to the synthesis (united stage).
Thus, judging from the time perspective, the formation of the quadruple of the Original Being is the action of Chung-Boon-Hap. It is the process which completes a harmonious figure through the give-and-take action of polarity, centering on Heart. Consequently, this action of Chung-Boon-Hap necessarily has a stage of completion or conclusion. From the spatial perspective, this completion is the Identity-Maintaining (Static) Quadruple. Accordingly, this action of Origin-Division-Union is an Identity-Maintaining (Static) one, and, as in the quadruple, there are also inner and outer actions. That is to say, we know there are actions of Chung-Boon-Hap equivalent to the quadruples shown in Figures 1 and 2, and this indicates the self-existence of the Original Being. All creatures maintain a definite shape due to the fact that they take after the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple which is formed by the completed Chung-Boon-Hap action of the Original Being. Yet every existing being in the created world not only maintains its definite shape but also incessantly changes and develops toward a new being. These phenomena are particularly noticeable in men, animals and plants. Therefore, the prototype of these phenomena should exist in the world of the Original Being. This prototype is the Developing Quadruple Base, namely the Quadruple Base for creation. As mentioned above, the purpose factor works in the formation of the Quadruple Base. From the time perspective, this formation of the Quadruple Base is also the action of Chung-Boon-Hap (C-B-H action), so this C-B-H action is not a completed one, but rather a developing one. Since the developing Chung-Boon-Hap action exists in the structure of the Original Image, with this as a prototype (cause), the created world has developing and multiplying phenomena. The Principle of Creation reads:
... multiplication occurs through the O-D-U [C-B-H] action caused by the action of give and take. Seen from this aspect, the universe is the substantial manifestation of the invisible God occurring through the give and take action between His essential character and form, centered on the purpose of creation. (Ibid., p. 40)
The Chung-Boon-Hap action can be illustrated as in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 Completed C-B-H action & Developing C-B-H action
But we should pay attention to the fact that in the created world the purpose factor acts even upon the completed C-B-H action. In the Original Image, the completed C-B-H action forms the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple as the self-existing form of the Original Being, so there is no purpose to it. But there should be a purpose to every created being, in spite of the C-B-H action having been completed. This is because, even though a being exists for its own maintenance of identity or self-preservation, every being came into existence in the created world by God's purpose of creation. This is the purpose for the individual. It is impossible to fulfill the purpose of creation without preserving the self-identity. Unless both man and nature maintain their individuality, nature can not be man's substantial object, nor can man be God's substantial object. Therefore to realize the purpose of creation, one's self-identity must necessarily be maintained. Accordingly the completed C-B-H action must occur with a purpose as its center. We should note that in the Original Being the completed C-B-H action occurs centering on the static Heart which does not pursue the object of the purpose, but in the general existing being, this same C-B-H action occurs centering on the purposes of creation (purpose for the individual and purpose for the whole).
Every being has a dual purpose.... Therefore, there cannot be any purpose of the individual apart from the purpose of the whole, nor any purpose of the whole that does not include the purpose of the individual. All the creatures in the entire universe form a vast complex linked together by these dual purposes. (Ibid., pp. 41-42)
This means that there are no existing beings which do not have a definite purpose. We call these "individual truth bodies" (existing beings).
Also, each individual truth incarnation [individual truth body] is a substantial object of God; therefore, each not only reflects God's dual essentialities of character [Sung Sang] and form [Hyung Sang] in the individual self, but each also has within itself the dual essentialities of positivity and negativity. (Ibid., p. 26)
In view of this statement it can now be seen that every existing being exists because of the completed C-B-H action, centering on purpose.
c. The Structural Unity of the Original Image
As mentioned above, when we explain the structure of the Original Being within the concepts of time and space, it becomes clear that the Original Image has both Inner and Outer, and Identity-Maintaining and Developing Quadruples as well as the C-B-H action. Here I emphasize that these types of structures are not separate and different but rather are united with each other. Since the world of the Original Image is outside of time and space, there can not be an inside and outside, nor position and process. There is no difference between the infinite and the infinitesimal, nor between eternity and the moment. The inside, middle or outside are the same as are the past, present or future, and also the large, medium or small. The infinite here and the eternal now are the essence of the world of the Original Being.
Even though it is not definitely stated in the Unification Principle, we can understand that there is a world beyond time and space from biblical sayings such as: "Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me?" John 14: 10) and "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am." John 8:58) Also, according to the teacher of the Divine Principle, "The mystery of the universe is contained in a cell." and "Even if a star be thousands of light years away, at the moment that we think of it, our bodies [spirit body] exist there simultaneously in the spirit world."
Thus there is neither place nor distance, nor priority nor posteriority in the world of the Original Image. Frankly speaking, it is not appropriate to use the expression "world" itself. So the four positions in the quadruple are actually one position, and the three stages of the C-B-H action are one stage. That is to say, Heart, Sung Sang, Hyung Sang, and the Union are one, and both division and unity are contained in the Origin; and quiescence and movement, identity maintenance and development are all one. In other words, there is quiescence in movement, and there is movement within quiescence; identity-maintenance within development, development within identity-maintenance; the Inner Quadruple exists within the Outer one, and the Outer Quadruple exists within the Inner one, etc. Thus the attributes of the Original Being are completely united and harmonious.
So the entire existing world is penetrated by one principle and the whole universe has unity and harmony as an organic body. For that reason, all the existing beings from heavenly bodies to atoms are connected with each other, have order, and exist in the polarities of mind and body, inner character and outer form, life and organic body, essence and phenomena, and time and space; and yet all those relative factors are united. To understand the Original Image exactly, it was inevitable that we use the concepts of space and time; but in spite of that, the Original Being should not be thought of as a composite being, but rather as unique and absolute with completely united and harmonious attributes.
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