Essentials Of Unification Thought - The Head-Wing Thought

III. An Appraisal of Conventional Methodologies from the Perspective of Unification Thought

A. Methodologies in the Ancient Period

1. Heraclitus

Heraclitus said that "everything is in a state of flux." It can be said that lie grasped only the developmental aspect in the created world, neglecting the identity-maintaining aspect. He also said, "War is the father of all," ascribing the cause of the development of things to the struggle of opposites. Yet, things develop only through the harmonious give-and-receive action between correlative elements.

2. Zeno

First, let us consider his theory that a flying arrow is at rest. When Zeno says that an arrow is at rest at a certain point, he is referring to a mathematical point, which has no space. The actual movement of an arrow occurs within time and space. The velocity of a body in motion (v) is the distance traveled (s) divided by the time elapsed (t), and is expressed with the equation v = s/t. Therefore, the movement of an object must be considered within a definite distance (space) and within a definite period of time. The movement of an object cannot be discussed at a point that only has position but no space (a mathematical point). Therefore, when we speak of the movement of an object at a certain point of space, no matter how small that point may be, we should consider it within a definite space, and when we speak of the movement at a certain moment, no matter how short that moment may be, we should consider it within a definite period of time. If we do so, we can say, definitely, that a moving object is not at rest, but rather moving through a certain point of space.

Concerning this issue, materialist dialectic asserts that an object is, and at the same time is not, at a certain place and at a certain moment, claiming that it has resolved Zeno's paradox and has explained motion. This, however, is no more than the same kind of sophistry as in Zeno's claim. The position of an object in motion is expressed as a function of time; therefore, to a certain moment corresponds a certain position on a one-to-one basis. It cannot happen that something is, and at the same time is not, at a certain place and at a certain moment.

In conclusion, (i) an object in motion passes through a certain space without resting in it; and (ii) an object in motion is at it certain place at certain moment of time.

The next issue is "Achilles and the tortoise." Zeno argued only in terms of space, disregarding time; therefore, the wrong conclusion was drawn that Achilles is unable to go ahead of the tortoise. If it is seen in terms of the passage of a certain time, Achilles can definitely go ahead of the tortoise.

Zeno tried to prove that there is no motion or change, there is no generation or destruction. To that end, he resorted to sophistry. It can be said that, contrary to Heraclitus, Zeno grasped only the identity-maintaining aspect of things, disregarding the developmental aspect.

3. Socrates

Socrates thought that people can reach the truth by means of a dialogue with a humble heart. This is the multiplication of truth through outer give-and-receive action between person and person. It can be said that Socrates advocated the proper way of give-and-receive action between person and person (Fig. 11-4).

Fig. 11-4: The Socratic Method of Dialogue

4. Plato

Plato studied the world of Ideas. In the human inner Hyungsang there are various concepts, and by analyzing and synthesizing them, Plato tried to clarify a hierarchy of Ideas. The analysis and synthesis of concepts are carried out through the comparison of concepts. This is a contrast-type of give-and-receive action. Since this is carried out within the mind, it is inner give-and-receive action. In the end, it can be said that Plato advocated the method of the search for truth through the contrast-type inner give-and-receive action (Fig. 11-5).

Fig. 11-5: Plato's Dialectic

5. Aristotle

Aristotle's deductive method is based on the syllogism. First, an universal truth is proposed; then, a more limited truth is proposed; from those two, a specific conclusion is derived. In terms of the preceding example, one contrasts the major premise, "all men are mortal" with the minor premise, "Socrates is a man," and derives the conclusion, "Socrates is mortal." This is a contrast-type give-and-receive action between a proposition and a proposition. Furthermore, since the proposition, "Socrates is a man" is obtained by contrasting "Socrates" and "man," this, also, is a contrast-type give-and-receive action.

Accordingly, Aristotle's deductive method, as in the case of Plato, can be called the method of the search for truth through the contrast-type inner give-and-receive action.

B. Methodologies in the Modern Period

1. Bacon

Bacon claimed that in order to obtain truth, one must cast away prejudices (Idols) and rely on experiment and observation. If the results of experiments A, B, C, ... N are all P, then conclusion P is established as a general law; this is the inductive method.

The inductive method seeks to obtain truth on the basis of outer give-and-receive action between human being and things (nature). Also, since this method yields a conclusion by contrasting various facts obtained through experiment and observation, it is give-and-receive action of the contrast-type. Therefore, Bacon's inductive method is the method of pursuing truth through contrast-type outer give-and-receive action (Fig. 11-6).

Fig. 11-6. Bacon's Inductive Method

2. Descartes

Descartes attempted to doubt everything, and as a result, lie claimed to have reached a sure first principle: "I think, therefore I am." Here, the fact that Descartes doubted everything means that he denied every thing and phenomenon, and therefore, seen from the viewpoint of Unification Thought, he traced back to the stage prior to God's creation of the universe. Under that circumstance "I think" corresponds to God's "plan," or "thought," before His creation of the universe. Here, Descartes said, "I think; therefore I am"; but he should have asked 'Why do I think?" If lie had asked that question, his rationalism would not have led to dogmatism in his successors. Anyway, his awareness of the truth of "I think; therefore, I am" means, from the viewpoint of Unification Thought, that lie acknowledged the certainty of the inner give-and-receive action within the human mind.

After that, he established a general rule that "things we conceive very clearly and very distinctly are true," which refers to the multiplication of truth through the formation of the inner four-position base (Fig. 11-7).

Fig. 11-7: Descartes's Methodic Doubt

3. Hume

I-fume considered causality merely a subjective belief. However, causality is not merely subjective, but is both subjective and objective, as already explained in the chapter on Epistemology. Moreover, Hume denied both material substance and spiritual substance (self), holding that there exist merely bundles of impressions and ideas. From the perspective of' Unification Thought, lie saw only the inner Hyungsang (ideas) as sure things.

Hume tried to establish a complete system of philosophy by analyzing mental processes, but the problem was that he tried to do it on the basis of separate impressions and ideas.

4. Kant

Kant claimed that cognition takes place as the chaotic sensory content coming form the object are synthesized with a priori forms of the subject. Unification Thought agrees with the view that cognition occurs through the interaction between the human subject and the object. However, from the perspective of' Unification Thought, the subject possesses not only forms (forms of thought), but also content (images). The combination of form and content is called prototype. Also, what comes from the object is not chaotic sensory content, but content with forms of existence. Contrary to Kant's theory of synthesis, Unification Thought asserts the theory of collation. The Kantian theory of synthesis, which is based on the transcendental method can be regarded as an expression of tire Unification Thought theory of collation, which is based on the give-and-receive method, from Kant's position.

5. Hegel

Hegel grasped the development of the Idea and the word as the process of transcendence and the unity of contradiction -- or the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. From the perspective of Unification Thought, however, development does not occur through contradiction. Development occurs when correlatives, in the relationship of subject and object, enter into give-and-receive action centering on purpose. (This is called Chung-Boon-flap Action.) In this, Chung means purpose, Boon means correlatives, and Hap means multiplied body.

The Idea does not develop by itself through the contradiction within, as Hegel claimed. Thinking is carried out as the inner Sungsang -- namely, the functions of intellect, emotion, and will-act upon the inner Hyungsang (including ideas), forming new ideas. This is called the development of thinking in a spiral form, as was explained in the chapter on Logic.

It can be seen that Hegel grasped development-which, according to Unification Thought, is give-and-receive action between correlatives-as interaction between opposing elements.

6. Marx

Marx held that spiritual processes are the reflection of material processes. From the perspective of Unification Thought, however, Sungsang (spirit) and Hyungsang (matter) are in the relationship of subject and object; therefore, there is a relationship of correspondence between spiritual laws (laws of value) and material laws.

As a counterproposal to the "law of the transformation of quantity into quality," Unification Thought offers the "law of balanced development of quality and quantity." From quantity to quality is not correct. Also, a sudden qualitative change does not occur when the quantitative changes reach a certain point. Quality and quantity are in the relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and they change simultaneously, gradually, and stage by stage.

As a counterproposal to the "law of the unity and struggle of opposites," Unification Thought proposes the "law of the give-and-receive action between correlatives." The struggle of opposites gives rise only to destruction and ruin, and never brings about development. All things develop through the harmonious give-and-receive action between correlatives centered on a common purpose.

To the "law of negation of negation," Unification Thought proposes, as counterproposal, the "law of affirmative development." In nature, as well as in society, development takes place as the correlative elements of subject an(] object within nature and society perform harmonious give-and-receive action. In nature, inorganic beings perform circular motion in space and living beings perform circular motion in time (spiral motion).

Among the methodologies in the past, none was more influential than the Marxist materialist dialectic. Trying to prove that Marx's dialectic was valid in nature as well, Engels studied natural sciences for eight years. As a result, lie concluded that "nature is the proof of dialectics." 7 The errors of the materialistic dialectic are now evident, however. Natural phenomena are, if examined well, not the .proof of dialectics," but instead the "proof of the give-and-receive method" (Fig. 11-8).

7. Husserl

Husserl first started with things of the natural world. Things are, when seen from the perspective of Unification Thought, the unified bodies of Sungsang and Hyungsang. Next, he advocated the intuition of essences through eidetic reduction. Essence here

Fig. 11-8: Dialectic or Give-and-Receive Action

corresponds to the Sungsang of existing beings. In addition, Husserl claimed that when judgment is suspended and consciousness (pure consciousness) is analyzed, there is a structure of noesis and noema. This, when seen from the perspective of Unification Thought, corresponds to the internal structure of Sungsang (mind), which consists of inner-Sungsang and inner-Hyungsang. A comparison between Husserl's phenomenological method and the viewpoint of Unification Thought would be as in Fig. 11-9.

Fig. 11-9. Comparison between Husserl's Phenomenological Method and Unification Thought

Husserl, like Descartes, considered, unconsciously, what corresponds to the Unification Thought concept of inner four-position base as important, and tried to unify all sciences through the analysis of the inner four-position base.

8. Analytical Philosophy

Language is formed through inner developmental give-and-receive action, which has an intellectual aspect (logos) centered on reason, and an emotional aspect (pathos) centered on emotional feelings. Analytical philosophy grasped only the aspect of logos, and pursued only logicalness.

From the perspective of Unification Thought, language, originally, exists in order to actualize love, and the logical structure of language is merely a necessary condition for that purpose. The use of language is the formation of thought, and is a kind of creative activity. The center of creative activity is Heart. Therefore, an emotional element centered on love plays the subjective role in the formation of thought. However, analytical philosophy engaged so much in the logical analysis of language from beginning to end that it came to disregard the creative aspect and the value-created aspect of thought formed through language.