|Divine Principle 1973 (Black Book) - Won Hyo Eu
Chapter 5. Preparation Period For The Second Advent Of The Messiah
The preparation period for the Second Advent of the Messiah is the 400-year period from the Religious Reformation of 1517 to the end of World War I in 1918. The summary of the character of this period was already discussed in the section comparing it with the preparation period for the coming of the Messiah viewed from time-identity, but a more detailed study will be made here. Seen from the viewpoint of the providence of restoration, this era is divided into three periods: the period of religious reformation, the period of struggle between religion and ideology, and the period of maturity for politics, economy, and ideology. (Page 449)
Section I -- The Period Of Religious Reformation (1517-1648)
The 130-year period, from the time when Luther held the banner of religious reformation in Germany in 1517 to when the fight between the two religious sects of old and new was ended by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 in called the "period of Religious Reformation". The character of this period was formed by the Renaissance and the Religious Reformation as the products of medieval feudal society. When the purpose of God's providence which He intended to fulfill through the medieval society became a failure, the Renaissance and Religious Reformation carried out the leading mission of establishing the foundation to receive the Messiah of the Second Advent, by turning it in the new direction of the providential history. Consequently, we cannot grasp the character of this period without knowing this.
If the Renaissance and Religious Reformation are the products of medieval feudal society, what kind of influence did medieval society exert upon the original nature of the medieval people, bringing about these two new developments?
Because of the social environment of the feudal system and the secular degradation of Roman Catholicism in the medieval ages, the original nature of man was restrained and its free development was restricted. Faith, the way each must go in search of God, can only be realized by a vertical relationship directly between the individual and God. The intervention of the pope and priests together with formal religious ceremonies and laws fettered the religious freedom of that age, while the strict system of the feudalistic classes restrained man's independent religious activities. Besides, through buying and selling of the priesthood and the exploitation of the people by the priests, the priests' lives inclined to be luxurious and hedonistic. In consequence, (Page 450) the papal authority came to stand in a position of no credibility whatsoever in the same manner as the authorities of the general society, and it was unable to lead the life in faith of the people.
Thus, the social environment of the medieval feudalistic age blocked man's way toward restoring his original nature endowed at the creation. Therefore, medieval men, who were under the bondage of such an environment, moved spontaneously in the direction of restoring man's original nature by breaking down the environment. The original nature of man presented itself with the character and tendency of both the internal aspect and external aspect. Let us now study where its ground is in the principle of creation.
According to the principle of creation, man, being God's substantial object in the image of His dual essentialities, resembles His essential character and form. This character and form have internal and external relationships. Man is created to live by the give and take action between this internal character and external form. Therefore, man's original nature was created also in pursuit of two desires, one of internal aspect and the other of external aspect. In working His providence of restoration with such men, God is compelled to work in correlation with the two pursuits of man's original nature.
God, who originally created man's body (external) first and then his spirit (internal) next (Gen. 2:7), works His providence of restoration for the re-creation of man by restoring first what is external and next what is internal. As was already discussed (cf. Part II, Ch. 1 -- 239), fallen man had to first offer an external symbolic sacrifice before he could offer an internal substantial sacrifice. Only by succeeding in making the internal substantial sacrifice could the more internal foundation to receive the Messiah be realized. Accordingly, in restoring fallen man, God first let man restore his position as a "slave of slaves" (Gen. 9:25), through (Page 451)the offerings in the pre-Old Testament Age. Then, in the Old Testament Age, He let man restore his position as a servant (Lev. 25:55), through the law. In the New Testament Age, He let man restore his position as an adopted son (Rom. 8:23), through faith. In the Completed Testament Age, He is guiding man to restore his position as a true son, through heart-and-zeal, always progressing from that which is external to that which is internal (cf. Part II, Ch. 2, Sec. III, 2 -- 347).
For the same reason, God let man first restore the external social environment through science while working His providence to restore the internal spirit of man through religion. Observing the order of the creation of the archangel and man, we find that God first created the archangel, who is external, and then created man, who is internal. Accordingly, in restoring the angel and fallen man, God has been working His providence by first restoring the external substantial world, centering on man's physical body, through the cooperative works of the angelic world, which is external, and then by restoring the internal invisible world centering on man's spirit.
Medieval men were to separate from Satan, who invaded them due to the degradation of the popes, whose internal mission had been to restore the foundation of faith, and who were thus to restore their original nature endowed at the creation. They divided the leading spirit of medieval men into the two movements to restore the two ideologies, one of Cain-type and the other Abel-type, according to the internal and external pursuits of their original nature. First came the movement to restore Hellenism, which was the Cain-type, and next came the movement to restore Hebraism, which was Abel-type. The movement to restore Hellenism caused the Renaissance, which was an expression of humanism, while the movement to restore Hebraism aroused the Religious Reformation for the revival of theism. Let us, therefore, study how the streams of (Page 452)Hellenism and Hebraism have historically interchanged, finally reaching the present age.
About 2000 B.C. the Minoan civilization was formed, centering on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea. this civilization, spreading into Greece, formed the Hellenistic cultural sphere of the Cain-type in the 11th century B.C., of which the leading spirit was Hellenism, centering on humanism. About the same time in Western Asia, the Hebraic cultural sphere of the Abel-type was formed, of which the leading spirit was Hebraism, centering on theism. This was the period of the United Kingdom.
If the Israelite kings of that age had set up the foundation to receive the Messiah, thus receiving the Messiah at that time, the Hebraic cultural sphere could have absorbed the Hellenic cultural sphere, thus forming one worldwide cultural sphere. However, the kings failed to unite with the will of God, leaving it unfulfilled. Thus, the period from the time of their subjection to Greece in 333 B.C. after their having returned from their captivity in Babylon until Jesus' coming at the time of their subjection to Rome, which belonged to the Hellenic cultural sphere, was the period during which Hebraism was placed in the situation of being controlled by Hellenism.
As already discussed in the previous chapter, if the Jewish people had become one centering on Jesus by believing in him, the Roman Empire of that time could have become the messianic kingdom centering on Jesus. If so, Hebraism could have absorbed Hellenism, thus forming a worldwide Hebraic cultural sphere at that time. Nevertheless, this will was not fulfilled because of the Jewish people's betrayal of Jesus, and Hebraism remained under the control of Hellenism. After Constantine the Great had officially recognized Christianity in the Milan Decree in 313 A.D., Hebraism began gradually to overcome Hellenism, finally forming the two great cultural (Page 453)spheres of Greek Orthodoxy and of Western European Christianity in the 700's A.D.
If in medieval society the popes and the kings, who were the central figures to restore the foundation of faith, had not been become corrupted, the foundation for the Messiah of the Second Advent could have been established at that time, and Hebraism could have completely absorbed Hellenism, forming one cultural sphere for the whole world. However, as discussed above, their degradation caused a Satanic invasion of the leading spirit of medieval men, centering on Hebraism. Hence, God had to work His providence of separating Satan. Therefore, God, just as He had divided Adam into Cain and Abel in order to separate Satan, who had invaded Adam, again worked His providence of separating the leading spirit of that time into two ideologies. These were the movements to restore Cain-type Hellenism and Abel-type Hebraism. These finally presented themselves in the form of the Renaissance and the Religious Reformation.
In this age, since the Renaissance occurred with humanism as its leading ideology, Hellenism was placed in a position of having control over Hebraism. Thus, this period becomes that in which to restore by indemnity, as the substantial time-identity, the period in which Hellenism held control over Hebraism due to the Jewish people's subjection under Greece during the period of preparation for the coming of the Messiah. We know that by Cain's surrendering in obedience to Abel and thus separating from Satan, who had invaded Adam, the foundation of substance to receive the Messiah could be established. Only by the Cain-type Hellenism surrendering completely to the Abel-type ideology of Hebraism and thus separating from Satan, who had invaded the leading spirit of medieval men, could the foundation of substance to receive the Lord of the Second Advent have been accomplished at that time. (Page 454)
1. The Renaissance
According to the external pursuit of man's original nature by the men of medieval society, the movement to restore Hellenism was aroused. By this movement, the Renaissance was born. Let us them study what this external pursuit of man's original nature was and how and why man came to pursue this course.
The principle of creation tells us that man was created to become perfect by carrying out by his free will his own portion of responsibility, in which process even God could not intervene. Therefore, it is man's original nature to pursue freedom. It is from man's original nature that he would pursue the independence of his personality because man was created to enjoy the absolute independence of his personality by carrying out his own portion of responsibility with his free will and thus by becoming one with God and perfecting his individuality.
Man was created as a man of perfected individuality to know God's will through his intelligence and reason and to live in accordance with it, even though he might not receive any revelation from God. Therefore, it is man's original nature to follow and develop his intelligence and reason. Man is also created to dominate the natural world. Therefore, it is man's original nature to follow and develop his intelligence and reason. Man is also created to dominate the natural world. Therefore, he must pioneer the environment of his everyday life by discovering, through science, the principles latent in nature. Accordingly, man's original nature demands that he pursue nature, reality, and science.
Men of the medieval society whose original nature had been oppressed by the social environment of the feudal system, were more ardently in pursuit of the above-mentioned things due to the external desire of their original nature. Medieval people also came to study the classics of Hellenism, imported from the East. The old spirit of Hellas was an external pursuit of man's original nature: the pursuit of human freedom, the (Page 455) independence of personality, the dignity of human intellect and reason, estimation of nature, emphasis on reality, and exaltation of science. Therefore it agreed with the desire of the people's original nature; the movement to restore Hellenism occurred with great ardor, finally leading it to the emergence of humanism.
Renaissance, in French, means "rebirth" or revival. The Renaissance developed as early as the 14th century, in Italy, which was the Mecca of the classical research on Hellenism. This movement of humanism, which at first began as a movement to have medieval men return to ancient Greece in imitation of the Hellenic spirit, advanced to become a movement to reform medieval social life by reproducing this classic culture. Going beyond the culture, it expanded to become a movement of reform, covering all the problems of society, such as politics, economy, and religion. It also became the external driving force which formed the modern society. The Renaissance is a phenomenon which developed in the form of an external reformation movement covering the whole of the feudal society and centering on humanism, which was the current thought of the age directed toward fulfilling the external desire of man's original nature.
2. Religious Reformation
The providence of restoration, centering on the popes of the medieval age, ended in failure due to the secular degradation of the popes and the priests. Medieval men, as they came to advocate humanism, resisted formal religious ceremonies and rules. They went against the feudal system of classes and the papal authority which repressed man's autonomy. They also repulsed the obstinate life of faith of the age in which man's reason and intellect were disregarded and everything was thought to be solved only by having it subjected to the pope. (Page 456)The people came to repel the seclusive, other-worldly, and ascetic attitude of faith which ignored nature, reality, and science. Thus, medieval Christians finally rebelled against the papacy.
In this way, as medieval men pursued the external desire of their original nature, they came to advocate the restoration of the early Christian spirit in which the people, centering on the apostles were very earnest in following God's will. This was actually the movement of restoration of Hebraism in the medieval age. In the 14th century, John Wycliffe, a professor of theology at Oxford University in England, translated the Bible into English, insisting that the standard of faith be put not upon the popes and priests but upon the Bible itself. At the same time, he denounced the degradation of the priesthood, and their exploitation and abuse of power over the people, testifying to the fact that the system, ceremonies, and rules of the church had no scriptural grounds.
In this way, the movement of Religious Reformation quickly developed in England as early as the 14th century, after the papal dignity had fallen. The same movement occurred in Italy also but failed. Later, in 1517, Pope Leo X began to sell "Indulgences", propagating that they were the token of redemption and salvation after death, in order to raise funds for the erection of St. Peter's Basilica. The movement against its ill effect became the incentive for action and the Religious Reformation exploded, centering on Martin Luther, who was a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. The fire of this revolutionary movement spread and developed actively in France, centering on Calvin, and in Switzerland, centering on Zwingli, gradually expanding into England, Holland and many other countries. The international conflict which burst out around the Protestant movement continued for more than 100 years until the fight between the old and new religious sects was once settled (Page 457)by the Thirty Years' War. This war was waged, centering on Germany, and finally ended in 1648, with the Treaty of Westphalia. As a result, the struggle ended in Northern Europe with the victory of Protestantism, centering on the Germanic nation. Southern Europe remained as the territory of Roman Catholicism, centering on the Latin peoples.
The Thirty Years' War broke out between the believers in Protestantism and Catholicism, centering on Germany. However, this war did not end up as a simple religious fight, but it was altogether a political civil war which decided the existence of the German Empire. Accordingly, the peace treaty of Westphalia which ended this war was a religious conference and also an international political conference which solved territorial problems among many countries like Germany, France, Spain and Sweden.
Section II -- The Period Of Struggle Among Religions And Ideologies (1648-1789)
This is the period of the 140 years from the success of the Protestant movement by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 until the French Revolution in 1789. Modern men, who came to pioneer the way in pursuit of the internal and external desires of their original human nature, could not avoid the division of doctrine and the fight among philosophies that came from the freedom of religion and ideology.
As was repeatedly discussed in Part II, the providence of restoration has been woven by the works of division into the Cain-type and Abel-type from the individual level to the worldwide level during the long period of history. Consequently, at the consummation of history, this world of corruption is to be (Page 458)divided into the communistic world of the Cain-type and democratic world of the Abel-type. Just as the foundation of substance could only have been realized by Cain's obedience in surrender to Abel, at this time also the worldwide foundation of substance to receive the Lord of the Second Advent is to be realized only by the Cain-type world's surrender to the Abel-type world. Thus, one world will be restored. In order for the two types of world to be realized, two types of the view of life must be established; in reality, these two types of the view of life were established during this period.
1. The Cain-Type View Of Life
The external pursuit of the original human nature aroused the movement of restoration of Hellenism, giving birth to humanism. The anti-medieval movement of the Renaissance, which occurred with humanism as its backing, made light of conversion to God and dedication to religion, replacing everything with nature and humanism. That is, it abandoned the medieval view of life under which the people were so obedient to God as to regard nature and the physical body of men as base and even sinful, and established the view of life exalting the value and dignity of these things. Man and nature came to be recognized through rational criticism by reason and experience, and through demonstrative analysis. This view of life has gone through the two forms of methodology of cognition and speculation. These form the two great currents of modern philosophy: "rationalism" by the deductive method and "empiricism" by the inductive method.
Rationalism, whose father was Descartes of France (1596-1650), maintained that all truths could be researched only by "reason", with which man was endowed from the moment of his birth. Rationalism broke down the historical tradition and set up the proposition of "I think, therefore, I am." by the (Page 459)deductive method. Deducing from this point, rationalists intended to affirm the external world. Accordingly, they tried to deny God, the world, and even themselves. On the other hand, empiricism, whose father was Francis Bacon of England (1561-1626), held that all truths could be researched only by experience. Empiricism held that the human mind, like pure white paper, should be removed from any preoccupation whatever and could only come to comprehend any new truth through experience and observation. Thus, the rationalistic ideology which valued human reason apart from God and the realistic ideology centering on man while based on experience both rejected mysticism and visions. By rationalizing and focusing only on human life, both separated man and nature from God.
In this way, the Renaissance, on the two currents flowing from humanism, gave birth to a view of life which prevented man from going the way of God in accordance with his internal trend and opened the way of the Satanic side by following the external trend alone. This was actually the Cain-type view of life. This Cain-type view of life, upon entering the 18th century, broke down history and tradition, judged every human endeavor by reason and by actualism, thoroughly repulsed that which was unreasonable and unrealistic, and denied God, emphasizing the rational reality of life. This was the thought of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment, which bloomed in the mainstream of empiricism and rationalism, became the motivating power for the French Revolution.
Influenced by this Cain-type view of life, there occurred in England the doctrine of deism, originated by Edward Herbert (1583-1648). Compared to the theology which had developed, since Thomas Aquinas, on the basis of harmony of revelation and reason, deism intended to establish a theology simply on the basis of reason. Deists confined their view of God to the significance of His having created man and the universe, and (Page 460)they maintained that God's revelations and miracles were not necessary to man.
In the beginning of the 19th century, Hegel, of Germany (1770-1831), made a comprehensive compilation of the philosophy of idealism. But Hegel's philosophy, when influenced by the atheism and materialism that emerged in France on the basis of the Enlightenment, gave rise to left-wing Hegelianism, the Left-Hegelians overturned his logic and systematized the philosophy of dialectical materialism, which motivates the communist world of today. D.F. Straus, a Left-Hegelian, wrote "The Biography of Jesus" denying the miracles in the Bible as posthumous fabrication, while Feuerbach (1804-1872), in his "Essence of Christianity" argued that social or economic conditions cause the emergence of religions. This theory became the backing for materialism. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrick Engels (1820-1895) were influenced by Straus and Feuerbach, but they were more greatly influenced by the socialistic ideology of France. By advocating dialectical materialism, they combined atheism and materialism, which had begun to bud after the Renaissance and had developed as the tidal current of the Enlightenment. Afterwards, the Cain-type view of life matured to form the communist world of today.
2. The Abel-Type View Of Life
We are inclined to regard the flow of history from the medieval society to the modern one as the course of separating man or making him independent from God or religion. This is because we have seen it based on the Cain-type view of life, which occurred in accordance with the external pursuit of man's original nature by medieval men.
However, the pursuit of man's original nature by medieval men was not confined only to that which was external, but also (Page 461)included that which was more internal. Internal pursuit of the original nature aroused the movement to restore Hebraism, which motivated the Religious Reformation. Through this movement, philosophy and religion came to establish a vertical view of life headed for man's original nature endowed at the creation; this we call the Abel-type view of life. Consequently, this Abel-type view of life led medieval men to progress toward God at a higher level, while the Cain-type view of life led them in the direction of separation, making them independent from God or faith in Him.
Kant, of Germany (1724-1804), introduced "critical philosophy" by assimilating empiricism and rationalism, which had conflicted with each other. Through critical philosophy, he analyzed philosophically the desire of man's original nature in pursuit of both internal and external goals, thus pioneering the Abel-type view of life from a philosophical angle. According to Kant, our various sensations occur by contact with external objects. This alone may give us the content of cognition, but cannot actualize the cognition itself. In order to actualize the cognition, there must be a certain form to unify the various contents (which are subsequent and empirical) according to one solid relationship. This form is the very subjectivity of oneself. Therefore, cognition is said to be actualized when the various sensations coming from the objects are integrated and unified by one's subjective form (inherent and transcendent), according to the spontaneous action of one's thinking power or one's spiritual awareness. Thus, Kant overturned the existing theory of facsimile which said that subjectivity is determined by the object, establishing a new theory that subjectivity determines the object. Succeeding Kant's theory there appeared a number of philosophers such a Fichte, his first successor (1862-1814), and Hegel (1770-1831). Hegel especially pioneered a new aspect (Page 462)of philosophy. Their idealism formed the Abel-type view of life, in the realm of philosophy. In the religious world, the Abel-type view opposed the inclination of the time, which was influenced by the current of rationalism; there emerged a new movement which emphasized mystical experiences more than doctrines or formalities, attaching importance to religious passion and man's inner life. To draw a representative example we can first name Pietism, which occurred centering on Philipp Spener (1635-1705) of Germany with a strong conservative trend to follow the orthodox faith, putting stress on mystical experiences. This movement of Pietism spread in England, and, inspiring the religious awareness of the people, it gave birth to Methodism, centering on the Wesley brothers. This denomination thus aroused a great revival in the religious world of England, which was in a depressed condition.
In England, there also emerged the Quakers, with the mystic George Fox (1624-1690) as founder. Fox claimed that Christ is the inner light, illuminating the souls of the believers. He also insisted that unless we experience the inner light, receive the Holy Spirit, and unite mystically with Christ, we can never know the true meaning of the Bible. This denomination spread its missionary work, suffering persecution especially on the American continent. Next, the famous spiritually sensitive Swedish scientist, Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), disclosed many heavenly secrets, with his spiritual eyes opened. His announcement has long been ignored in the theological world; but quite recently, with the increase of man's communication with the spirit world its value is gradually being recognized.
In this manner, the Abel-type view of life has matured to form the democratic world today. (Page 463)
Section III -- The Period Of Maturity Of Politics, Economy, And Ideology (1789-1918)
The struggle among religions and ideologies of the previous period resulted in the establishment of Cain- and Abel-type views of life. Upon entering this period, these two views of life matured in their respective directions. As they matured, two types of worlds, one of Cain and the other of Abel, were formed while the structure of society was arranged to have a social shape based on these two views of life. The politics, economy, and ideology also developed to a stage prior to their conversion into the ideal society. The period beginning after the French Revolution through the Industrial Revolution and continuing until the end of the First World War was the period for such providence.
In the previous chapter we discussed democracy from the standpoint of the development of history. However, this discussion examined only the external circumstances causing democracy to appear. Now let us examine the internal circumstances of how and on which ideological tide, in the surging flow of history, today's democracy came.
As already discussed (cf. Part II, Ch. 4, Sec. VII -- 425), if in the period of the United Kingdom, the spiritual kingdom centering on the pope and the substantial kingdom centering on the king had become one, realizing the monarchic society capable of receiving the Messiah and thus establishing the foundation to receive the messiah, the feudalistic society would have ended at that time. However, since this providence was a failure, this period was prolonged; the political, religious and economic history came to develop through separate respective courses. (Page 464)
Political power, decentralized to the local lords of the medieval feudalistic period, began to decline after the Crusades and became more emaciated upon entering the period of the Enlightenment, after having gone through the Renaissance and Religious Reformation. Then, in the middle of the 17th century, the feudal lords established unified states with many small nations as a unit; by consolidating them under the king, they formed an absolute state with the centralization of administrative power. This was the period of absolute monarchy when, influenced by the idea of the "divine right of kings", the kings were endowed with absolute power. From the social aspect, let us now examine the cause that brought about this period. First, it was for the class of citizens united with the king to resist the feudalistic class. Second, it was because they needed strong national identity apart from the feudal system in order to control trade in their economic activities, and because they needed the mercantile economic policy under strong protection and supervision by the state for the welfare of the people.
On the other hand, seen from the standpoint of the development of the history of the providence of restoration, monarchic society on the Heavenly side should have been realized after the feudalistic society. The popes and kings of this age, however, failed to become one; the society on the heavenly side was not realized. In reverse manner, the society centering on the pope turned out to be the society of absolute monarchy on the Satanic side, following the course that Satan had laid out in advance. Again, from the standpoint of the providence of restoration, let us consider the trends of the society of absolute monarchy. Since the medieval feudalistic society ran counter to both Hebraism and Hellenism, these two ideologies worked together in breaking down the society and established two types of society based on the two views of life -- Cain-like and Abel-like. Likewise, the society of absolute monarchy developed through (Page 465)the following course. The society of absolute monarchy, which fettered the freedom of faith under the Christian democracy since the Religious Reformation, went contrary to the attainment of the purpose of the Abel-type view of life. The feudalistic system which had still remained in that society became an obstacle to the development of the citizen class under the leadership of the atheists and materialists and thus also contradicted the attainment of the purpose of the Cain-type view of life. Therefore, both of the two views of life tended to break down the society and finally formed two types of society -- one of communism and the other of democracy based on the two types of democracy, Cain-like and Abel-like.
(1) Cain-Type Democracy
Cain-type democracy grew out of the French Revolution. In order to discuss this problem, we must first discuss the French Revolution. France in that day was in a period which saw the expansion of the idea of Enlightenment, being led into atheism and materialism by the Cain-type view of life. The citizens, thus influenced by the idea of Enlightenment, were awakened to the contradiction of absolutism, and naturally their desire to break down the remnant of the old system, still rooted deep in the society under absolutism, attained a zenith.
Here in 1789, in accordance with the high tide of the idea of Enlightenment, the citizens broke down the feudalistic ruling-class of the absolute monarchic society and at the same time rose to advocate democracy for the freedom, equality and liberation of the third class (citizens). This was actually the French Revolution. As a result of this revolution, the "Declaration of the Rights of Man" was officially announced; thus, democracy born out of the French Revolution came about when the idea of Enlightenment, which developed into the ideology of materialism, broke down the society of absolutism (Page 466)in order to set up the Cain-type view of life, we call it the Cain-type democracy. Therefore, Denis Diderot (1713-1784) and D'Alembert (1717-1783), the thinkers of the French Revolution, were scholars from either the line of atheism or materialism.
As we may see from the particulars of this revolution, it was true that the democracy of France inclined toward totalitarianism rather than the equality and freedom of individuality. In this way, the Cain-type view of life formed the Cain-type democracy by establishing the idea of Enlightenment and thus giving rise to the French Revolution. This completely blocked the way of man's internal pursuit of his original nature for God, only developing externally more and more. Once systematized into the Marxism of Germany and the Leninism of Russia, the Cain-type view of life finally formed the communist world.
(2) Abel-Type Democracy
The democracy realized in England the United States is different, even in its origin, from the democracy that was born out of the great revolution of France. The former was the Abel-type democracy realized by ardent Christians, who were the fruits of the Abel-type view of life, through their victory over absolutism, against which they had fought for the sake of their freedom of faith. The latter was the Cain-type democracy, realized by the advocates of atheism and materialism, who were the products of the Cain-type view of life, through the breakdown of the society of absolutism.
Let us then study how the Abel-type democracy was established in England the United States. In England, as Charles I strengthened absolutism and national religion, many Puritans moved into other European countries or the New Continent in search of freedom of faith. Previously, in Scotland, some of the Puritans who had been under religious persecution passed the People's Pact, resisting the king (1640). Again in England, the (Page 467)Puritans, who were the nuclear members of Parliament, launched the Puritan Revolution, centering on Cromwell (1642). Besides, as the absolutism and strengthening of the national religion by James II were intensified, William of Orange, his son-in-law, who was at that time Stadholder of the Netherlands, landed in England with his army in 1688 in order to protect the freedom of faith and civil rights and ascended the throne bloodlessly. Upon his enthronement, William recognized the independent rights of Parliament by approving the "Declaration of Right" reported by Parliament. This became the basis of the constitution of England. Since this revolution was a bloodless success, we call it the Glorious Revolution. This revolution in England also had its cause in the endeavor by the citizens class to obtain freedom and liberation from the class of great landowners such as the nobles and priests, but the main cause was to obtain, through such a revolution, the internal liberation and freedom of faith.
Then the Puritans, who had been suppressed under the imperial regime of absolutism in England, went to the new continent of America in order to obtain freedom of faith, and in 1776 they founded an independent nation there. Thus, they came to establish American democracy. The democracy established in England and America is called the Abel-type democracy because it was set up through revolution to reform the society of absolutism in order to obtain freedom of faith centering on the Abel-type view of life. In this way, the Abel-type democracy has formed today's world of democracy.
2. The Significance In The Principle Of The Separation Of Three Powers
The idea of the separation of the three powers was advocated by Montesquieu, who was an authority in the school of the Enlightenment. The separation of powers was to decentralize (Page 468)national power and prevent it from being concentrated in a specific individual or organization as had been done in the political system under absolutism.
Originally, this separation of the three powers was the structure of the ideal society designed by the Heavenly side, but as it always had been with all the courses in the providence of restoration, this also had been realized in advance by the Satanic side, in a pseudo-form of the Principle. Let us here study what the structure of the ideal society is like.
As we have clarified in the "Principle of Creation", the world of creation was made with the structure of a perfect man as the model. The ideal world, consisting of perfect men, would have resembled the structure and function of a perfect man. Just as all the organs of a human body would move according to the command of the brain, all the organizations of the ideal world must work under the command of God alone. Just as all the commands from the brain would be transmitted to all the members of the body through the medium of the peripheral nerve system centering on the spine, the commands from God must reach the entire society, without omission, through the medium of the saints, corresponding to the peripheral nerve system, centering on Christ, who corresponds to the spine. Again, the peripheral nerve system centering on the spine in the human body corresponds to the political parties of the state, so the foundation corresponding to the political parties of an ideal society must be performed by the saints centering on Christ.
Just as the lungs, heart and stomach maintain smooth give and take action without any conflict, according to the commands of the brain which are transmitted through the peripheral nerve system, the three organs -- legislative, executive and judiciary -- of the ideal society, which correspond to the three human organs also must be able to have a relationship of give and take action in the Principle according to the commands of God, which are transmitted through the saints centering on (Page 469)Christ, corresponding to the political parties. Just as the limbs of the human body move for the purpose of living according to the command of the brain, so the economic structure, corresponding to the limbs, must move toward establishment of the purpose of ideal society according to the command of God. Just as the liver in the human body saves nutrition for the whole body, in the ideal society, too, there must always be a reserve for the accomplishment of the purpose of the whole.
Since each of the limbs and all parts of the human body have a vertical relationship with the brain, the horizontal relationship among the members is automatically established, forming an inseparable organism. In the same way, since men of the ideal society have a vertical relationship with God, the horizontal relationship among them is automatically established, forming an organism which shares all feelings. Therefore, in this society one cannot commit crime because harming others results in harming oneself.
Let us next study how the providence of restoration has restored the social structure. There was in the course of historical development of Western Europe a period in which the kings shouldered all the functions of the three powers of legislative, executive and judiciary, and of the political parties. However, this changed into another period in which the king held the three powers and churches centering on the pope took charge of the mission of the political parties. The political system of this age was again divided into the three powers -- of legislative, executive and judiciary -- due to the French Revolution, and political parties came to bear a marked political mission. Thus, by establishing the constitutional political system in democracy, they could at least realize the pattern of the system of an ideal society.
In this way, the political system has changed through the long period of history because the society of fallen men has been restored into an ideal society which resembles the structure (Page 470) and function of a perfect man, according to the providence of restoration. In this manner, today's democratic government is divided into three powers and produces many political parties, thus making itself finally resemble the structure of a human body. But this is, after all, like a fallen man who has not been restored, and naturally cannot display the original function endowed at the creation.
That is to say, the political parties, without knowing God's will, may be compared to a peripheral nervous system centering on the spine that has lost the function of transmitting the command of the brain. Since the constitution is not made of God's words, the three organs of legislative, executive and judiciary become like three organs of a human body which are rendered unable, due to the severance of the nervous system, to feel and respond to commands from the brain; they cannot help opposing and conflicting with one another, and lack mutual harmony and order.
Therefore, the purpose of the ideal of the Second Advent of the Messiah is to make the present political system -- resembling the structure of a fallen man -- display perfectly its original function centering on God's will by connecting it to the perfect central nerve.
3. The Significance Of The Industrial Revolution
God's ideal of creation will not be realized simply by forming a human society without sin. Man, to fulfill God's blessing of dominion over all creation (Gen. 1:28), must realize a blessed social environment by finding out the principles hidden in the created world and by developing science to the utmost degree. As already discussed in Part I, religion and science have respectively been in charge of overcoming the two aspects of ignorance of fallen men, one spiritual and the other physical, thus gradually restoring the ideal society. Therefore, at the con-(Page 471)summation of history, the Word that can completely remove our spiritual ignorance must appear, while science must be so developed as to be capable of removing completely man's ignorance of physical reality, thus realizing a scientific society of a stage prior to the emergence of the ideal society. Seen from this providence of God, we can understand that the Industrial Revolution of England came from the providence of restoring the living environment for the ideal society.
The economic organization of the ideal society must also resemble the structure of the perfect human body. Therefore, as previously mentioned, production, distribution and consumption in that society must have an organic relationship of give and take action, such as that among the stomach, the heart and the lungs in the human body. Consequently, there should not be the destructive competition for the market -- caused by excessive production -- nor accumulation nor consumption that hinder the whole living-purpose by partial distribution. Production sufficient to fill man's needs, fair distribution -- neither excessive nor insufficient -- and rational consumption for the purpose of the whole must occur.
Meanwhile, mass production after the Industrial Revolution stimulated England to rapidly pioneer the settlement of vast colonies as her markets and sources of supply of raw materials. In this way, the Industrial Revolution carried out not only the mission of restoring the external environment for the ideal society, but also that of the internal providence of restoration by providing a vast territory for the propagation of the gospel.
4. The Strengthening Of The Powers, And The Partition Of Colonies
Since the Renaissance, the view of life which had matured in two types, one of Cain and the other of Abel, aroused two (Page 472)respective types of political revolutions and established two types of democracy. These two types of democracy, both influenced by the Industrial Revolution of England, were rapidly strengthened and finally came to form two worlds of different factions -- the democratic world and the communist world.
The industrial development coming from the rapid progress of science which followed the Industrial Revolution brought about an economic society characterized by over-production. As a result, the grave necessity to pioneer new regions for markets for the excessive production and of resources of industrial materials caused great world powers to rapidly strengthen themselves in order to continue their scramble for colonies. Thus, the currents of the two views of life (the Cain-type and the Abel-type) and the economic development following scientific progress finally divided the world, politically, into two worlds: the democratic world and the communist world.
5. The Revolution Of Religion, Politics And Industry Following The Renaissance
The anti-medieval movement of the restoration of Hellenism, which was of the Cain-type, gave birth to humanism through the Renaissance. This, having developed more on the side of Satan, evolved into the Enlightenment, which could be regarded as a second renaissance. Then the Enlightenment, having matured more on the Satanic side, gave birth to historical materialism, which could be taken as the third renaissance. Finally, this matured into the communist ideology.
Since the Satanic side always realized God's providence in advance, three periods of revolution in religion, politics and industry followed. The first religious reformation centering on Luther followed the first renaissance. In the religious world, a (Page 473)new spiritual movement which became the second movement of religious reformation rose centering around Wesley, Fox and Swedenborg, under unspeakable persecution after the second renaissance. Therefore, seen form the course of the development of history, it is natural that the third religious reformation will come following the third renaissance. In fact, the state of today's Christianity reveals an urgent need for such reformation.
On the other hand, three stages of reformation have also occurred in the political aspect. The medieval feudal society collapsed under the influence of the first renaissance and the first religious reformation, while the absolute monarchic society collapsed under the influence of the second renaissance and the second religious reformation. Then, the communist society was formed by the political revolution brought by the third renaissance. Now, through the third religious reformation to come, the democratic world of the Heavenly side will subjugate with ideology the communist world of the Satanic side. These two worlds will necessarily be united into one Kingdom of heaven on earth, centering on God.
We can also notice the fact that the economic reformation has also developed through the course of three stages. The first industrial revolution originated in England as a result of industrial development through steam. Immediately afterward the second industrial revolution, through electricity and gasoline, broke out in many advanced countries. Now a third industrial revolution, based on atomic energy, will arise, and this will create throughout the world a very blessed social environment for the ideal world. These three stages of revolution, covering the three fields of religion, politics and industry, which followed the three stages of Renaissance in the period of preparation for the second advent of the Messiah, are the necessary course for the (Page 474)realization of the ideal society, in accordance with the three stages of the law of development.
Section IV -- The Great World Wars
1. The Cause Of The Great World Wars Viewed From The Providence Of Restoration Through Indemnity
Wars always break out because of political, economic and ideological causes. But these are no more than external causes. We must know that there are internal causes, just as there are both internal and external causes in human action. That is human action is decided not only by man's external free will, which tends to cope with the reality with which he is confronted, but also by man's internal free will, which tends to adjust to God's will by heading for the purpose of the providence of restoration. Therefore, the good or evil of human actions must not be judged by the external cause alone. The worldwide conflict between opposing actions, both of which occur in accordance with men's free will, has resulted in the great world wars, so we must know that also, in this case, there should be both internal and external causes. Consequently, we can never grasp the providential significance of the great world wars if we consider only the external causes such as politics, economy and ideology.
What, then, must be the internal cause of the great world wars, as interpreted by the providence of restoration by indemnity? First, the great world wars broke out because of the last struggle of Satan trying not to let his opponent take away his sovereignty. As we have already seen, due to the fall of the first human ancestors, Satan has always realized, in advance, the non-principled world in the pattern of the Principle, imitating (Page 475)the world of Principle God was going to realize. God, working after him, has performed His providence to restore His world of Principle, gradually broadening the territory of goodness out of the non-principled world that had been under Satanic domination. In the course of the providence of restoration, a false one would always appear before the true one comes. As a representative example, the Bible says an antichrist would come before the true Christ.
The history of evil sovereignty centering on Satan will end with the appearance of the Lord of the Second Advent, and the history of evil sovereignty will be changed into the history of good sovereignty centered on God. Therefore, Satan at this time will put up his last struggle. In the nationwide course of the restoration into Canaan centering on Moses, Satan caused Pharaoh to display his last struggle against the chosen people of Israel who were going to leave Egypt. Therefore, the Heavenly side smote him with three great miracles, thus letting the people leave. Likewise, in the consummation of history, Satan would display his last struggle against the people of the Heavenly side who are to start their worldwide course of restoration into Canaan. Therefore, the act of smiting Satan three times appeared in the three great world wars.
Second, as Satan has realized in advance the type of world in which God would have fulfilled His three great blessings to men in a non-principled way, the great world wars are inevitable in order to set up the worldwide condition of indemnity to restore God's three great blessings. God created man and blessed him with three great blessings: that he should perfect his individuality, that he should multiply, and that he should dominate the world of creation (Gen. 1:28). Consequently, man should have realized the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth by fulfilling these great blessings. (Page 476)
Since God, having created man, blessed him with such blessings, He could not annul the blessings, even though man fell. So, He could not but allow fallen men to realize in advance the non-principled world in the pattern of the blessings, centering on Satan. Accordingly, at the close of human history there is to be realized a non-principled world which follows the pattern of having perfected the three great blessings: that is, the individuality centered on Satan, multiplication centering on Satan, and domination of the created world centering on Satan. Therefore, in order to set up the worldwide condition of indemnity to restore God's three great blessings, three great world wars must occur to smite, through the three stages of formation, growth and perfection, the non-principled world which follows the pattern of fulfilling the three great blessings, centering on Satan.
Third, great world wars are inevitable in order for earthly men to overcome Satan's three temptations to Jesus on the worldwide base. Christians should overcome the three temptations which Jesus suffered in the wilderness on the individual, family, national and worldwide levels. Therefore, three great world wars occurred so that mankind may overcome the three temptations of Jesus three times on the worldwide level.
Fourth, great world wars are inevitable in order to set up the worldwide condition of indemnity for the restoration of the heavenly sovereignty. If man had perfected himself through the three stages of the growth period without falling, the world under the sovereignty of God would have been realized. Therefore, God has to wage the last war to restore the world of heavenly sovereignty by dividing this fallen world into the two types -- the Cain-type and the Abel-type -- and by having the Heavenly world of the Abel-type smite the Satanic world of the Cain-type, thus restoring worldwide, by indemnity, the act of Cain's having killed Abel. Even in doing that, the three stages (Page 477)must be undergone and thus, three great world wars are inevitable. Therefore, the great world wars are the last wars in which to restore by indemnity, horizontally, the purpose of all the wars that have been waged for the restoration of heavenly sovereignty in the vertical course of the providence.
2. The First Great World War
(1) Summary of the Providence for the First World War
Government under absolute monarchy collapsed as the consequence of two types of democratic revolution, the Cain-type and the Abel-type, which had been brought about by the two views-of-life. The Industrial Revolution, which followed, led the feudalistic society into a capitalistic one, finally giving birth to imperialistic society. Therefore, the first world war, seen from the political aspect, was the war between the democratic government heading for the providence of restoration according to Abel-type democracy, and the totalitarian government which was against the purpose of the providence of restoration, according to Cain-type democracy.
Seen from the economic aspect, it was a war between imperialism of the Heavenly side and that of the Satanic side. This great world war was, in a certain respect, also a war waged between advanced capitalistic nations and the less advanced ones, to obtain colonies.
The First Great World War, seen from the ideological aspect, was a war between the Cain-type nations such as Turkey, the Moslem nation persecuting Christianity at that time, together with Germany and Austria-Hungary, who supported Turkey and the Abel-type nations, such as England, America, and France, who believed in Christianity. To conclude, the First World War was one in which democracy, which was to realize the purpose of the Abel-type view of life, could create the basis of victory on the formation level. (Page 478)
(2) What Decides the Heavenly Side and the Satanic Side?
The Heavenly side and Satanic side are decided according to standard of direction of God's providence of restoration. The position of taking the same direction as that of God's providence of restoration and at least of acting in concert with the direction, even in an indirect way, is called the "heavenly side", and a position contrary to it is called the "Satanic side". Therefore, its position on the Heavenly side or the Satanic side may not necessarily agree with our common sense, conscience or judgment. The fact that Moses killed the Egyptian may be considered evil by those who do not know God's providence. Nevertheless, when seen from the standpoint of the providence of restoration, it was good. Besides, when seen from the standpoint of not knowing God's providence, we must also regard as evil the Israelites' invasion of the land of Canaan, during which they destroyed all the gentiles without reason. However, this was also good when seen from the standpoint of the providence of restoration. Although there may have been among the Canaanites those who were more conscientious than the Israelites, the Canaanites at that time were uniformly on the Satanic side while the Israelites were uniformly on the Heavenly Side.
Further, let us take an example from the religious viewpoint. All religions, having their purpose equally in "goodness", are on the Heavenly side. However, when a certain religion should block the way of another religion closer to God, seen from its mission, that religion may belong to the Satanic side. Since every religion has a certain mission it its age, any religion is apt to fall on the satanic side when, after having passed its mission-period, it should stand in the way, as an obstacle, to the religion that would appear to carry on a new mission of the next age. Before the coming of Jesus, Judaism and the Jewish people were all on the Heavenly side. But, when they persecuted Jesus, who had come with a new mission in order to fulfill the purpose (Page 479)of Judaism, they fell on the side of Satan, regardless of how well they may have served God in the past.
Since the modern age, all the lineage of the Abel-type view of life is on the Heavenly side, while all other lineage of the Cain-type view of life is on the Satanic side. In that sense, materialists, being the fruit of the Cain-type view of life, are on the Satanic side, no matter how conscientious and devoted to others they may seem from the humanistic point of view. Accordingly, the communist world belongs to the Satanic side. On the other hand, the democratic world where freedom of faith is allowed, being the world existing under the Abel-type view of life, is on the Heavenly side.
As already discussed in Part I, Christianity was set up as the central religion with the final mission to fulfill the purpose of all religions. Therefore, seen from the standpoint of the providence of restoration, anything blocking the way of Christianity toward fulfilling the purpose of this providence belongs to the Satanic side. Consequently, any nation persecuting Christianity or blocking its development, either directly or indirectly, belongs to the Satanic side. Therefore, in World War I, the leading nations on the side of the allies, such as England America, France and Russia, were not only the Christian nations, but also the nations who tried to liberate the Christians under persecution in Turkey, the Moslem nation. So, all came out belonging to the Heavenly side. The other leading nations, such as Germany and Austria-Hungary, those who supported Turkey, the Moslem nation that persecuted Christianity, all belonged to the Satanic side, together with Turkey herself.
(3) the Cause of World War I Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
Seen from the providence of restoration, the internal cause of World War I was, first, to set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity on the formation level to restore God's three great (Page 480)blessings to man. As already clarified above, Satan has realized, in advance, a type of world similar to that which God intended to realized centering on Adam. Therefore, at the consummation of history, there will necessarily appear a non-principled world imitating the formation-degree fulfillment of the three great blessings, centering on the Adam-type personage on Satan's side, In consequence, God's side must smite this world, and set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity in the formation degree to restore the principled world having perfected the three blessings centered on God. The First World War occurred for that purpose.
Therefore, the Kaiser of Germany, who provoked the First World War, was the personage of the Adam model, with perfected individuality in the formation stage on Satan's side and fulfilled the pattern of multiplying children by advocating Pan-Germanism. He then realized the pattern of dominating the whole creation by setting up the policy of world conquest, thus realizing the non-principled world in the type of perfection in formation stage of the three great blessings, centering on Satan. Therefore, in order for the Heavenly side to attain victory by smiting the Satanic side and to set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity in the formation level to restore the world having perfected the three great blessings centering on God, the First World War was inevitable.
Second, in order to have an earthly man of the Heavenly side overcome Satan's first temptation of Jesus on the worldwide basis, there had to be the First World War. Therefore, seen from the viewpoint centering on the temptation that Jesus had undergone, God's side had to set up the condition of indemnity to restore, worldwide, God's first blessing to man by winning the victory in the First World War. Jesus had established the foundation of restoring his perfect individuality and restored the stone as himself represented in it by overcoming the first temptation in the wilderness. Likewise, God's side had to destroy the (Page 481)Satanic world, with its central figure, by winning the victory in the First World War and had to establish the world of the Heavenly side with the Lord of the Second Advent as the center, thus laying the foundation for him to restore his perfect individuality.
Third, the First World War was inevitable in order to establish the foundation in the formation stage to restore the Heavenly sovereignty. As we have already discussed (cf. Part II, Ch. 4, Sec. VII, 2.6 -- 441) the democratic system appeared as the final type of government to restore God's sovereignty, after having subjugated the society under absolutism. As the facts later proved, nations on the Heavenly side won the victory in the First World War and Christianized the world by broadening their political territory. This they established the foundation in the formation stage for democracy and at the same time laid the foundation in the formation stage to restore the Heavenly sovereignty by forming a wide and firm basis of politics and economy on the Heavenly side.
(4) Result of World War I Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
Due to the victory of the Heavenly side in World War I, there was established the condition of indemnity in the formation stage to restore, worldwide, God's three great blessings to man. Seen from the viewpoint of overcoming on the worldwide level Satan's temptation to Jesus, the condition of indemnity to restore, worldwide, God's first blessing to man was established. Then through the democratic nations' victory, the foundation in the formation stage in the world on the Heavenly side was established; the foundation was established on which the Lord of the Second Advent could be born as the King of the World on the heavenly side. (Page 482)
Following this, the communist world rose, centering on Stalin, who was the symbolic representation of the Lord of the Second Advent on the Satanic side. The Satanic side intended to realize the pseudo-form of the Kingdom of Heaven on earth centering on a personage in the pattern of the Lord of the Second Advent on the Satanic side in order to realize, in advance, the ideal of the Heavenly side before the Lord of the Second Advent establishes the ideal of the Kingdom of Heaven on earth under the principles of coexistence, co-prosperity, and common-cause. Therefore, with the victory of the Heavenly side in the First World War, the foundation for the Second Advent of the Messiah was established. From that time began the formation period for the ministry of the Second Advent.
3. The Second World War
(1) Providential Outline Concerning World War II
As we have already noticed in history after the Medieval Age, the fundamental spirit of democracy is to realize the purpose of the Abel-type view of life. Therefore democracy is necessarily in pursuit of the world under the ideal of creation, following the natural tendency of the two characteristics, internal and external, of the original nature of man. Naturally, the Second World War was the war in which democracy established the foundation of victory in the growth stage by conquering totalitarianism, which blocked the way of the original nature of man.
(2) What is Totalitarianism?
When the economic panic overwhelmed the whole world in the 1930's, nations such as Germany, Japan, and Italy who, under circumstances of isolation, found it difficult to overcome such an adversity, tried to find in totalitarianism a way to break through their difficulty. (Page 483)
What is totalitarianism? Totalitarianism is a political ideology which denies the dignity of man's individuality and the freedom of speech, publication, meeting and association, together with the basic human rights regarding the state and the parliamentary system -- which are the bases of the democratic political ideology of the modern nations -- and it insists that any individual or group should exist for the benefit and development of the whole nation or state. Therefore, freedom under this system may be defined not as a right for any individual to claim and enjoy, but as a duty or sacrifice one should pay for the whole.
The guiding principle of totalitarianism does not put any authority on the majority but on one man, the ruler. The will of the ruler, then, becomes the ideology of the whole nation or state. To draw some examples of such totalitarian political systems, there have been those of Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, and the dictatorial government of the militarists of Japan.
(3) Nations on the Heavenly Side and Those on the Satanic Side During World War II
World War II was a war between the nations on the heavenly side -- U.S.A., England, France -- in alliance with one another under democracy, and the nations on the Satanic side -- Germany, Japan, Italy -- in alliance with one another under totalitarianism. Why, then, were the former on the Heavenly side and the latter on the satanic side?
The former were on the Heavenly side because they had democracy as their fundamental ideology, which had been built as the political ideology of the final stage of the providence of restoration, centering on the Abel-type view of life. The latter were on the Satanic side because they were the anti-democratic totalitarian nations whose political ideology was centered on the Cain-type view of life. Again, the former were the nations in support of Christianity, while the latter were those standing in (Page 484)an anti-Christian position, thus naturally separating themselves into the Heavenly side and the satanic side.
Let us now further clarify the details. Germany, which was the center of the Axis Powers of that time, deprived the people of their fundamental freedom, and her control of ideologies asserted its influence even in the religious field. That is, Hitler imposed the strict primitive Germanic religious ideology by concluding a pact with the Pope of Rome, thus founding a national religion, and then tried to control all Protestantism under the supervision of bishops throughout the country. Therefore, the Catholics as well as the Protestants were strongly opposed to Hitler. Furthermore, Hitler massacred six million Jews.
Japanese militarists during the world war forced every Korean church to install a Kamidana (household altar) of Japanese Shintoism, and they compelled the Christians to worship at Japanese shrines. Whoever was against this was imprisoned or killed. They especially massacred Korean Christians who had immigrated into Manchuria to escape the bondage of Japan and to find freedom. Thus, the policy of annihilating Korean Christianity, which they enforced even into the latter part of the great war, was most atrocious. Italy also became an Axis power by conspiring with Germany, who was on the Satanic side. Mussolini purposely set up Catholicism as the national religion in order to unify the ideology of his people, thus proceeding to go against God's providence of restoration. Upon such a ground we may describe Germany, Japan, and Italy of that day as the nations on the Satanic side.
(4) The Reason the Heavenly Side and the Satanic Side Confronted, with Three Great Powers on Each Side
The Second World War broke out in order to set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity of the growth level to restore God's three great blessings, left unfulfilled, centering on Jesus. (Page 485)Originally, it was due to the fall of the three beings, Adam, Eve and the archangel, that God's three great blessings were not fulfilled. Therefore, in restoring the three great blessings, there had to be the participation of three beings in order to restore the three blessings through indemnity. So God fulfilled the spiritual providence of salvation by combining the three beings -- Jesus who came as the second Adam, the Holy Spirit who came as the deity of Eve (cf. Part I, Ch. 7, Sec. IV, 1 -- 214), and the archangel -- thus spiritually restoring His three great blessings. Accordingly, the Second World War, which was to set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity on the growth level to restore the three blessings centered on Jesus, also had to set up the condition to restore the three blessings through indemnity with the nations on the Heavenly side symbolizing Adam, Eve and the archangel winning victory over the nations of the Satanic side, which had a similar pattern. Therefore, Satan, who knew this, mustered beforehand the nations in the patterns of Adam, Eve and the archangel of the Satanic side, ahead of this providence, and had them attack the nations of such patterns on the Heavenly side.
Incidentally, the United States, as a man-type nation, symbolized Adam of the Heavenly side, while England, as a woman-type nation, symbolized Eve on the Heavenly side, and France, as an intermediate type of nation, symbolized the archangel of the Heavenly side. On the other hand, Germany, as a man-type nation, symbolized Adam of the Satanic side, while Japan, as a woman-type nation, symbolized Eve of the Satanic side, and Italy, as an intermediate type of nation, symbolized the archangel of the Satanic side. Before this, the United States, England, France, and Germany, Austria, Turkey in World War I were also nations either on the Heavenly side or on the Satanic side, as the symbolic patterns on the formation level, composed in groups of similar types.
Why did the Soviet Union, which was a nation of the Satanic side, join the Heavenly side? When the medieval society of (Page 486)Western Europe, centering on the pope, stood in a position never to attain the purpose of the providence of restoration, God had to work His providence to realize the two worlds -- of communism and of democracy -- by dividing the society into the two worlds based respectively on the Cain-type view of life and the Abel-type view. Meanwhile, the Feudal society and the Monarchic society, or the Imperialistic society, blocked the way of the Heavenly side and at the same time barred the ultimate way of the Satanic side in fulfilling such a providence. Therefore, the Heavenly side and the Satanic side united to break that society. The providence of restoration develops with the flow of the age. Accordingly, even the non-principled world, which realizes in the pseudo-form God's providence of restoration ahead of Him, has to develop towards the Satanic purpose with the flow of the age. Therefore, even in the Satanic world, there must be struggle to liquidate the old society because it is an obstacle to the progressive society.
In accordance with such an historical trend, totalitarianism during the Second World War also became an obstacle in the way of the Satanic side, as it did on the Heavenly side. Meanwhile, God has to allow, even temporarily in the providence of restoration, the Satanic side to realize the communist world. Therefore, God let the communist world rapidly bear its own fruit through the Soviet Union's breaking the totalitarian nations in cooperation with the nations on the Heavenly side. However, as soon as the Second World War was over, the two worlds of democracy and communism were divided like water and oil.
(5) The Cause of World War II Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
Seen from the providence of restoration, the first of the internal causes leading to the Second World War was to set up, (Page 487)worldwide, the condition of indemnity on the growth level to restore God's three great blessings. Because of Adam's fall, God, by sending Jesus, the second Adam, tried to restore the world with His three great blessings fulfilled, centering on Jesus. Nevertheless, Jesus fulfilled this only spiritually, by his crucifixion, due to the faithlessness of the Jewish people. On the other hand, Satan always realizes, beforehand, the world in a pattern similar to the world which Jesus intended to realize. Therefore, at the consummation of history, there will no doubt be realized a non-principled world in the pattern of the three great blessings fulfilled on the growth level, centering on a Jesus-type personage on the Satanic side. Consequently, God has to set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity on the growth level for the restoration of the world in the Principle with the blessings realized, centering on God, by smiting that Satanic world. For this purpose the Second World War came about.
The Jesus-type personage on the Satanic side was Hitler. Therefore, the life of Hitler was very similar to that of Jesus in the aspects of his thinking on a worldwide scale, his single life, his miserable death, and his missing corpse, though his will was exactly opposite to Jesus'. Consequently, Hitler of Germany, who provoked the Second World War, was the Adam-type personage on the Satanic side, while he fulfilled the pattern of multiplying children by advocating Pan-Germanism and realized the pattern of dominating the whole creation by establishing the policy of world hegemony. Thus, he realized the non-principled world in the pattern of having perfected the three great blessings on the growth level to restore the world, having perfected the three great blessings by winning victory in the Second World War. (Page 488)
Second, World War II came in order to have the earthly men of the Heavenly side undergo and overcome, worldwide, Satan's second temptation to Jesus. Therefore, when we see this from the temptation which Jesus had undergone, the Heavenly side had to set up on the worldwide level, the condition of indemnity to restore God's second blessing to man by winning victory in the Second World War. Just as Jesus established the foundation for the restoration of the children by overcoming the second temptation in the wilderness, the world on the Heavenly side had to establish the foundation of democracy on the growth level by winning the victory in the Second World War, having men of the heavenly side thus lay the worldwide foundation for it.
Third, World War II came in order to establish the foundation on the growth level for the restoration of sovereignty. Because of the victory of the Heavenly side in the First World War, the democratic world came to enjoy its foundation on the formation level, while, following this, even the Satanic world which had been realizing the Cain-type world could subjugate "imperialism" and establish the foundation, on the formation level, for the communist world. Therefore, the Second World War, as the resultant facts revealed, had completely separated the two worlds of democracy and communism, each having laid its foundation on the growth level, the restoration of the heavenly sovereignty would come to establish its foundation on the growth level.
(6) Result of World War II Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
The victory of the Heavenly side in the Second World War enabled the establishment of the condition of indemnity on the growth level to restore, worldwide, God's three great blessings (Page 489)to man. Seen from the standpoint of undergoing, worldwide, Satan's temptations to Jesus, the condition of indemnity to restore God's second blessing worldwide was set up. At the same time, the foundation on the growth level for the restoration of sovereignty was established, as the democratic world could lay the basis on the growth level.
Then, seen from the principle of restoration by indemnity, the fact that Hitler (the Jesus-type personage on the Satanic side) and his country were destroyed, and the communist world centering on Stalin (the person in the pattern of the Lord of the Second Advent on the Satanic side) appeared on the worldwide basis foreshadowed that the age in which man has erected the spiritual kingdom centering on the resurrected Jesus had passed, and that the time had come to build a new heaven and a new earth (Rev. 21:1-7), centering on the Lord of the Second Advent.
Thus, after World War II, we entered the growth stage for the ministry of the Second Advent. Many people have therefore received revelations concerning Christ coming again, and spiritual works occur all over the world. At the same time, all the established religions will be secularized in increasing chaos and division, losing their religious power. This is a latter-day phenomenon occurring due to God's final providence for the unification of all the religions through a new and ultimate truth.
4. The Third World War
(1) Is the Third World War Inevitable?
In the beginning, God created the first human ancestors and blessed them to dominate the whole world (Gen. 1:28). Therefore, God could not but allow Satan to realize the non-principled world in the pattern of having fulfilled this blessing, with fallen men in front. On the other hand, God, according to His providence of restoration, has worked to take all men back (Page 490)to the Heavenly side, always following Satan from behind. Therefore, at the consummation of human history, both the Heavenly side and the Satanic side must come to dominate the world in their respective ways. Thus, the two worlds of democracy and communism will stand together. For the final separation and unification of these two worlds, there should come world wars. The First and the Second World War having been the wars to divide the world into the two worlds of democracy and of communism, the war for the unification of these two separate worlds must come next. This is the veritable Third World War. Therefore, the Third World War will inevitably come. However, there are two ways for that war to be fought.
First, there is the way to subjugate and unify the Satanic side by weapons. However, the ideal world to come after unification, being that in which the whole of mankind should rejoice, will never be realized by subjugating the enemy only externally by the use of weapons. Therefore they must afterwards be subjugated internally, and come to truly rejoice from the bottom of their hearts. In order to do this, there must be an absolutely perfect ideology that is able to satisfy the desire of man's original nature.
Then, the second way this war may be fought is to subjugate and unify the Satanic world directly by a wholly internal fight through ideology without any external fight by weapons. Men are rational beings. Therefore, the world of perfect oneness will be realized only when they are subjugated and united by reason. The question of which kind of war will actualize one world will be decided according to the success or failure of man's carrying out his own portion of responsibility. Where, then, will the new world ideology necessary to establish one world come from?
The ideology that may lead the whole of mankind into one ideal world cannot be expected to come from the communist world established by the Cain-type view of life, for the Cain-(Page 491)type view of life is blocking the internal development of man's original nature. Therefore, this ideology should come out of the democratic world which is established by the Abel-type view of life. However, it is a fact, historically proven, that there has not been one ideology among the many existing in the democratic world that can subjugate the communist ideology.
Then, this ideology must newly emerge from the democratic world. In order for this new ideology to come out, there must appear a new truth. This new truth, should, of course, be the foundation of the Abel-type view of life, and, naturally, be the foundation of democracy. Just as it was with the course of historical development in which men have pursued new truth until now, such a new truth, when it should come, will conflict with the old ones which many people have until now believed to be true. So, even in today's democracy, people will be divided into two groups of the different standpoints of Cain and Abel, fighting with each other. Nevertheless, when this new truth establishes a victorious basis in the democratic world and further subjugates the communist ideology, the one world under this one truth will finally be realized.
Satan, knowing in advance God's providence of giving men this new truth to unify them under one ideology, has set forth a false ideology imitating the true one in his attempt to unify the whole of mankind centering on himself This Satanic "truth" is dialectical materialism. Dialectical materialism attempts to destroy any spiritual being by setting up its own rational ground. The position of this materialism, trying to prove that there is no God, fell into a state of self-destruction, and assumed the logic of denying the existence of Satan himself. Moreover, Satan knows well enough that he himself will perish at the consummation of (evil) history. Realizing his inevitable end, when he will no longer be exalted, he rose to deny God at the risk of sacrificing himself. This denial is actually the core of (Page 492)"dialectical materialism". Therefore, the Heavenly side will never be able to escape from the attack of Satan's theory, unless the democratic world can set forth the truth which will subjugate his ideology. Here lies the historical ground in the providence of restoration that the Heavenly side must proclaim the perfect and absolute truth.
(2) Providential Summary of the Third World War
The Third World War is going to be that in which God intends to restore, as the final measure since He began the providence of restoration, the ideal world by having the democratic world subjugate the communist world. Seen form the viewpoint of the providence of restoration: through World War I, the Heavenly side established a democratic foundation on the formation level with the broadening of the political, economic territory by securing colonies all over the world; through World War II, the territory of the democratic world was stabilized by establishing, worldwide, the democratic foundation of the growth level. Now, through World War III they must build the democratic foundation of the perfection level by setting up the perfect Abel-type view of life, according to the new truth, and on this foundation they must lead all mankind into one world.
Therefore, the Third World War is the final war, in which the heavenly side should restore through indemnity, horizontally, at the consummation of history, all that it was compelled to hand over to Satan after having tried to fulfill the heavenly will by making the three stages of prolongation in the historical course of the providence of restoration.
(3) The Cause of the Third World War Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
As discussed above, the question of whether the Third World War is to be waged by force of arms or by an ideological battle (Page 493)will be decided according to the success or failure of man's carrying out his own portion of responsibility in fulfilling God's providence of restoration. However, regardless of the type of battle to be fought, there will undoubtedly be one more worldwide war.
Then what would be the internal cause of the Third World War, as seen form the providence of restoration? First, it is to set up worldwide the condition of indemnity on the perfection level to restore God's three great blessings to man. Due to the faithlessness of the Jewish people, the providence of restoration centering on Jesus was fulfilled only spiritually. Therefore Christ must come again on earth to restore the world, both spiritually and physically, in which God's three great blessings are fulfilled. Therefore Satan again attempts to realize the non-principled world in the pattern similar to the world which the Lord is to bring about at the time of the Second Advent. Accordingly, at the close of history, there will be realized the non-principled world in the pattern of having restored the three great blessings, centering on a personage in the pattern of the Lord of the Second Advent on the Satanic side. Therefore, the Heavenly side must set up, worldwide, the condition of indemnity on the perfection level to restore the world having fulfilled the three great blessings centering on God by subjugating that world centering on Satan. For this purpose, there must come the Third World War.
Stalin was the actual personage in the pattern of the Lord of the Second Advent on the Satanic side. Accordingly, Stalin, as the personage in the pattern of having perfected his individuality on the Satanic side, fulfilled the pattern of having multiplied children by advocating the combined efforts of the farmers, fishermen, and laborers in resistance against the democratic world. He also realized the pattern of dominating all things by establishing the policy of Bolshevizing the world, thus (Page 494)fulfilling the pattern of the three great blessings. Therefore, we must know that the communist world is the non-principled world in which Satan has attempted to realize the world of co-existence, co-prosperity, and common-cause which shall be realized in the future, centering on God.
Second, the Third World War will come in order to have men of the Heavenly side overcome, worldwide, the third temptation of Jesus by Satan. Therefore, centering on the temptation which Jesus suffered, the heavenly side must set up the condition of indemnity to restore, worldwide, God's third blessing by winning the victory in the Third World War. This is because just as Jesus established the foundation to restore the dominion over all things by overcoming the third temptation in the wilderness, the Heavenly side must restore man's domination over the whole world of creation by winning a victory in the Third World War.
Third, the Third World War must come in order to establish the foundation on the perfection level for the restoration of sovereignty. This is because the heavenly side must realize the ideal world under the macrocosmic Principle by destroying the communist world, and by having all the sovereignty returned to God through victory in the Third World War. (4) Result of the Third World War Viewed from the Providence of Restoration
God at first intended to work His providence of restoration by setting up Cain and Abel in Adam's family. Nevertheless, due to Cain's murder of Abel, the sinful history of mankind began. God's work of separating good and evil to restore Adam's family by indemnity began on the individual level. After expanding through the levels of home, tribe, society, race and nation, it has now widened its scope to that of the worldwide level. God intends to restore by indemnity the whole of the (Page 495)providential course which has been prolonged as many as three stages by winning the victory in the three world wars, which are the final works of the providence of restoration.
In the beginning, the first human ancestors lost the heart-and-feeling toward God by having been trapped by Satan's words of temptation, and due to the internal spiritual fall and external physical fall they succeeded in Satan's lineage. Therefore the providence of restoration will be fulfilled when all fallen men are restored and succeeded in God's lineage by restoring their heart-and-feeling towards God through His words of life, and by receiving both spiritual and physical salvation (cf. Part II, Ch. 2, Sec. III, 3.2 -- 363).
The victory of the Heavenly side in these three World Wars will finally enable the realization of the ideal world originally designed at the creation, which God has tried to fulfill through the long, long period of history since the fall of man, by completely restoring through indemnity all the foundations for the providence of restoration. (Page 496)
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