The Global Congress World's Religions Proceedings 1980-1982 Edited by Henry O. Thompson

V. Representatives of the Dalai Lama

MR. PEMA GYALPO: Mr. Chairman, Brothers and Sisters, or the other way -- Sisters and Brothers First of all I would like to take this opportunity to thank the organizing committee of this timely conference for extending their invitation to His Holiness, the Dalai Lama. Secondly, on behalf of Geshe Tfenpa, and my senior colleague, Mr. Tenzin Tethong, I would like to thank the committee for giving us this opportunity to speak among so many people who may not even have heard the name Tibet.

My presentation tonight is not going to be a scholarly report. Nor do I have an answer or conclusion such as was given by Professor Hwang yesterday. I have to ask for your patience also because English is my third language. My mother tongue is Tibetan. My second Motherland is India but since I have been living in Japan for the last sixteen years I think I should call Japanese my second language and English my third language. So please use your imagination. I am afraid you are really going to have a tough time but I hope that we can have a heart to heart contact tonight. I am not trained to be an eloquent speaker.

I would like to spend a few minutes with you with sincerity and with zeal to try to explain to you something which is deeply emotional for us. When the chairman first asked me to give this talk I took it rather too easily and accepted. Actually we first thought that we would be coming here to learn from you rather than to be speaking in front of such an honorable audience. But when you asked me we felt a sense of responsibility to share what we have. In one sense, it is difficult for me to speak. In another sense, it is easy because it is a matter which is dear to us. That is especially the case since the Chairman asked me to speak about the activities of His Holiness, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the thinking of His Holiness with relation to the aims of this Global Congress of the World's Religions. For us six million Tibetans, His Holiness is the object of respect and love, and our source of encouragement. He is the symbol of our national unity, someone who is close to the hearts of his people, including myself.

I appreciate the books Dr. Thompson gave me on past meetings of the Global Congress of the World's Religions. I find common ground in the name, the title, of this Congress. In the autobiography1 of His Holiness, there is an Appendix on Buddhism. One section has the title, "One of the Many Religions of the World: Buddhism and Its Founder." He also considers or accepts other religions and thinks of our religion as one of the world's religions. That was a great help and assurance for me. As I went through the papers, the minutes of your past meetings, I found Professor Rao's paper on Gandhi.2 In that paper Dr. Rao mentioned "Sarvadharma," "reverence for all religions." I think this is exactly what His Holiness' attitude is towards all religions. His Holiness has a great respect for Gandhi. I think you can call him a disciple of Gandhi. He wrote about Gandhi in his autobiography.

My very first visit on my first morning in New Delhi was to the Rajghat, the place of cremation of Mahatma Gandhi. I was deeply moved as I prayed there on the green lawns which slope down to the Jamuna River. I felt I was in the presence of a noble soul -- the soul of the man who in his life was perhaps the greatest of our age, the man who had contended till death itself to preserve the spirit of India and mankind -- a true disciple of Lord Buddha and a true believer in peace and harmony among all.3

This is exactly what His Holiness feels about Mahatma Gandhi. In this I think you will find some relationship between your activities and the thinking of His Holiness.

I also went through the objectives of your Global Congress. Again I found that what you have written there as objectives are part of the life of His Holiness -- His daily routines. Perhaps the best and most convincing way to understand this is to come into contact with the personality of His Holiness. He is not here so instead, I thought that perhaps I should tell you a little about the person His Holiness, the Dalai Lama.

The present Dalai Lama is the 14th in the lineage.4 Tenzin Gyatso was born July 6, 1935. He was born into a farmer's family.5 His Holiness also writes about his background. He says,

I have always felt that if I had been born in a rich or aristocratic family, I would not have been able to appreciate the feelings and sentiments of the humble classes of Tibetans. But owing to my lowly birth, I can understand them and read their minds, and that is why I feel for them so strongly and tried my best to improve their lot in life.6

Now, this was written in his autobiography. This is also related to Tibet before the Chinese occupation. We had a few years in which we tried to live with our new friends. We tried to live in co-existence. We tried to implement some of the suggestions which they had. But they never let us have our suggestions implemented.

For example, His Holiness tried to change some of our land systems. He led the public in remodeling some of our old social systems. These reforms were stopped by the invasion.7 It is in this connection that he has written about his birth and that he had been trying to improve the living standards of the ordinary people. His Holiness was enthroned in 1940 according to our traditional procedures. In 1950, at the age of sixteen, he assumed all the responsibility, both spiritual and political responsibilities, of his country. In October, 1950, China invaded Tibet. Perhaps you remember that the early 1950s was not a peaceful world. The Korean War was going on. When we tried to bring our issue to the United Nations, they were very busy with the Korean War. I don't know if it has been solved now or not.8 His Holiness tried to tell his people that truth will ultimately prevail. Therefore he never asked his people to get weapons from America or some other country and fight with the enemies. Instead, he tried to find some ways to solve the problems by peaceful means. In this connection, His Holiness traveled to China in 1954 where he met the late Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai. He went to India in 1956 in the pursuit of peaceful solutions. He met Jawaharlal Nehru and other Indian leaders. We had sent delegations to Great Britain with whom we had -- I think I should say quite close relationships. We also tried to get help from other neighbor countries. He tried to approach the United Nations directly several times. In spite of all these efforts we had to leave our own country in 1959.9

Since 1955, there have been unceasing efforts to appeal to the United Nations. Some countries with feelings for the weak, poor, unheard people of the earth supported us. We were finally heard and resolutions were passed in the United Nations in 1959, 1961, and 1965.10 But the United Nations has its own limitations. The resolutions were passed but nothing was done. In the face of all these failures, Tibetans could only have felt irritated by having to wait, wait, and wait and just appeal for understanding or some fair judgment. But what His Holiness did in all these years was to emphasize the self-support of the Tibetans. Traditionally, and culturally, we had very good relationships with India. The government received us very warmly. Many organizations from many different faiths sent us food. They built us schools and they came to help us. But His Holiness always told us that we Tibetans should not be professional refugees. There are still more needy people in many corners of the world.

Instead of giving us guns to go back to our own country and fight with our invaders, he tried to educate the Tibetans. He said that education was the key to our future. Today there are about 44 schools run by Tibetan refugees. I think we have more than 5,000 going to schools. We have more than 200 who have graduated from universities. We have preserved our culture. The Indian government allows us to run our schools according to our own traditions. In order to meet the present world situation His Holiness has offered us not only teaching in Tibetan history, there are classes for Science, Mathematics, and other subjects which are being taught throughout the world.11 The result is that we can be Tibetans and also move forward in the world. All those who have helped us can be proud of our accomplishments as we win back and maintain our human dignity. After twenty-one years, we went back to Tibet on a fact-finding delegation, led by Mr. Tenzin. Our new rulers have failed to educate even one Tibetan in these twenty-one years with a proper university education.

We appreciate what we have been able to do. In some places, we even lost our identity. For Tibetans, we are always Tibetans. For others -- once you are stateless you are half human and half animal and something else. But in spite of this we have been able to educate many people. We have been able to export something to the outside. Export may not be the proper word. What we did was to help many Westerners become interested in Tibetan religion and the Tibetan way of life. Today there are more than three hundred monasteries and Buddhist centers throughout the world while in our homeland thousands and thousands of monasteries have been destroyed. This is a fact which even the Chinese admit now. But after losing our country, losing everything, we have been able to make some contribution to the rest of the world. On the other hand, we are trying to learn. We have our own books on hygiene. However, there is room for improvement. For example, many of our children died as infants. So we are trying to translate Western medicine into Tibetan. Tenzin was the founder of the Tibetan Review and the journal Sheja. Sheja is a magazine which is printed in Tibetan. The Tibetan Review is in English.12 We try to share with others what we have and learn from others what they have. In this way His Holiness has also carried out a series of dialogues with the leaders of different faiths. He has not only met with religious leaders. He has met scientists, doctors and lawyers. When he went to America, he met with American Indians. He met both Pope Paul VI (1973) and the present Pope John Paul II (1980), the Archbishop of Canterbury, and religious leaders in the United States and Canada. He has traveled extensively in Asia. He has visited Japan three times and Thailand three times. Throughout these missions, he has only one message and that is compassion. He has tried to explain to all people that we don't have an organization to propagate such ideas. We just want to share and this is what His Holiness feels. His Holiness feels that it is the individual mind that has to be enlightened. Therefore, he has continued with his dialogues for the last twenty years since we came to India. India itself, of course, is a country where many religions co-exist. There is always the opportunity of meeting so many religious people. This gives a great opportunity for His Holiness to share and to learn.

In closing I will quote some of His Holiness' own words. We do not have a book of quotations like Mao Tse-tung. Many Tibetans have more than one copy of the Sayings of Chairman Mao.13 When you marry, they will give you a copy of Mao's Sayings. If you have a baby, they will give you a new copy. Tibetans have never published a book of quotations from His Holiness. There is one, however, by an American freelance photographer, Marcia Keegan.14 She photographed His Holiness throughout his visit to North America in 1979. The quotations which I would like to read illustrate the similarities between what you are trying to say and what has already been said by Professor Hwang. As I was listening to Professor Hwang, I really felt that everyone has his own power to think. Sometimes people think the same thing and no one really has a monopoly over a concept. I think Professor Hwang was saying different words but with the same meaning.

I would like to quote some of His Holiness' thoughts. All religions can learn from each other; the ultimate goal of all religion is to produce better human beings. Better human beings would be more tolerant, more compassionate and less selfish.

And on the purpose of religion His Holiness says that:

The purpose of religion is not for arguing. If we look for differences there is no use of talking about it. Like Buddha, Jesus Christ and all other great teachers, they created their ideas, teachings, with sincere motivation, love, kindness towards human kind, and they shared it for the benefit of all human kind. I do not think these great teachers came up with these differences in order to make more trouble. Because I believe in Buddhism, because I believe there is no creator, if I criticize other religions which believe in a creator then if Lord Buddha were still here he might scold me.

When His Holiness visited Hiroshima last year, some journalists asked him about his impressions. His Holiness was deeply moved and we could see tears in his eyes. He said, "We cannot blame the atomic bomb itself. It is the atomic bomb which every individual has in their hearts. Fire cannot extinguish fire, anger cannot extinguish anger, so we have to learn to take care of our hearts."

His Holiness was asked by some journalists in New York about the purpose of his visit and so forth. He said, "My visit has no particular purpose. I am a citizen of this world. I am a Buddhist monk, and in my mind all people are the same. I always have great respect for different systems. I have learned tolerance and compassion and kindness. I always want to go to as many places as possible and learn as many things as possible."

Another reason His Holiness is so concerned about continuing this dialogue is that as he says,

No one knows what will happen in a few decades or centuries -- what adverse effects, for example deforestation, might have on the weather, on the soil, grain, etc. We are having problems because people are concentrating on selfish interests, on making money and not thinking of the community as a whole. They are not thinking of the earth and long-term effects on human beings as a whole. If the present generation does not think about them now the future generation might not be able to cope with them.

That is why he wants to do what he can do in his life. He has even given thought to the institution of Dalai Lama, itself. His Holiness published a new constitution for the Tibetan people March 10, 196315 It is of course up to the people to approve it. In it, His Holiness has given the people the power to even remove himself from his position. He has said that the Dalai Lama system itself is not important, if it is not useful to the people, if it does not serve the purpose to be of service to the people. His talks are sometimes shocking to us. He says so many things which so many people have never said before. For us, he is the object of reverence and of our love. He is the source of energy and the symbol of our national unity. The authority of His Holiness the Dalai Lama is the -- I am trying to find the proper word in English -- it is the people's feelings toward him -- it is their love that keeps him there. Today we do not have authority to enforce any law. We do not have authority or power to punish. He is powerful because people love him, because our people love him. Today there are governments which are recognized by other governments but not their own people. In our case, if there were an election tomorrow, if it is a completely free expression of their will, the people will definitely be for His Holiness. This I felt very strongly when I visited China and our beloved country of Tibet last year with Mr. Tenzin Tethong. Our love for Him and our feelings for him can be understood through the names which we use for him. We call him Gyalwa Rinpoche, which means The Precious King, or Yeshe Norbu, The Wish Fulfilling Gem. You all know Dalai Lama means the Ocean of Wisdom. In these names and in many other ways you can find how people feel about him. You may have seen the latest issue of a new magazine which deals with the question of Tibet. It is very interesting.16

Finally again, I would like to thank you all for having given us this opportunity. His Holiness says that these kinds of dialogues or the search for co-existence may not be easy. Whether we can achieve world harmony or not, we have no other alternative than to try to achieve this goal. It is the only alternative we have.

DR. KALUPAHANA: Thank you Mr. Gyalpo. We have heard something very interesting from Mr. Gyalpo about a religious tradition which has been completely dislocated from its natural surroundings and still retains its vitality and strength because of its emphasis on love, compassion, and tolerance. I am sure you have questions to ask of Mr. Gyalpo but I thought it is proper not to interrupt the presentations by the entire delegation. I understand that the other two members of the delegation are not going to speak long so let us allow them time to speak. Then at the end, we can open the meeting for discussion. At this time I will call upon Mr. Ttnzin Tethong to say a few words.

MR. TENZIN TETHONG: Thank you very much. I think my role at this point is just to make a few comments and not to give a long talk. I just wanted to point out to those who were not here when Professor Hwang spoke last night that he went through a series of reasons -- religious, political, economic and other reasons, as to why there should be and there can be inter-religious dialogue. In some ways I was quite surprised.

Hwang wrote this paper from an academic viewpoint and yet what he was saying was almost identical to what we have heard from many religious teachers of the world. Personally, and as Mr. Pema Gyalpo said, I am most familiar with my own personal religious teacher, in this case His Holiness, the Dalai Lama. During his visit and talks at universities and religious groups in the United States he has said almost identical words to what Dr. Hwang has pointed out. I think this is a very encouraging sign that both religious leaders who sometimes may not be as academic in their approaches, and a person coming from a purely academic viewpoint, come to the same conclusions or reasons as to how and why we can have inter-religious dialogue. It is further encouraging to note that it is right for organizations and congresses such as this to work on this issue. I want to point out one or two examples as to how inter-religious dialogue can be of practical benefit.

One example which is often mentioned, and which Professor Hwang's paper mentioned also, is the aspect of studying each other's tradition. There may be areas where you could apply certain aspects or techniques without having to really change your own beliefs or ideas. For example the Dalai Lama has often mentioned the fact that maybe certain meditation techniques from Asia, from the Buddhist tradition or Hindu tradition, can be of benefit to Christians. In turn, he has also said that there are many things in the practice of compassion which Buddhists can learn. He cited as an example all the charitable, educational, and social work that has been done by Christian missionaries throughout the world for many centuries. He has pointed out very strongly that very often Buddhists, including Tibetan Buddhists, talk of compassion. We meditate on compassion. But we implement very little in terms of actual human service. So this is one of the examples that we talk about where there could be actual benefit. One could implement a technique from another tradition without compromising one's own belief. In terms of furthering religious dialogue -- it is not satisfactory just to lump all religions together. Nor is it good to have dialogue among the religious people and exclude others. If the purpose of religion is for mankind, then all the more there is a burden or responsibility on religious people to have this dialogue with non-believers. It is in this respect that His Holiness has often mentioned the need to communicate with people who we would consider non-believers. This includes anyone who is an atheist, communist, or non-practicing religionist.

We need to find the common ground on which our human concerns can be considered. The problems that confront human society today and probably more so in the future -- the problems of nuclear arms, problems of future world populations -- these and many more are problems that confront not only religious people but all mankind. Sometimes His Holiness has said that people who are actually working as scientists or in pure research or as doctors, may be doing more religious work than people who are dressed as religious people. We have very strong reasons for people who are not even religious to be brought into this kind of dialogue, to further the common concerns of all mankind.

As my colleague pointed out, the Tibetan people and Tibetan Buddhism has been going through an extremely difficult period over the last thirty years. In terms of physical and material problems it is really, I think, much more than anyone should have to take. It is not a situation however, where one should complain about it. Instead, we feel that we have to make a positive contribution despite our situation. It is in this respect that whenever there is any conference of this nature, any kind of dialogue or meeting of different religious faiths, I think you will find a very positive participation from the Tibetan Buddhists and representatives sent by the Dalai Lama. Our contribution is in terms of participation and trying to be an encouragement to each other. That is why we are involved. It is not just the Dalai Lama who is meeting with religious leaders; other Tibetans are talking and meeting with different religious faiths. Among Christians, there is dialogue going on with Tibetan Buddhists in India. Christians have come to live in some of the new monasteries we have established. Tibetan scholars and monks have visited Christians in Europe and in the United States. In the coming year we will have a few monks who will be coming from India to live in some Benedictine Monasteries in the United States to exchange the experiences of monastic life.

I think one sort of common ground exists which is between Tibetan Buddhist monks and Christian monks. The monastic lifestyle has much in common. Dialogue continues, and I think there is reason to believe that this will continue for some time. This is something that is happening physically and on a more theoretical level. There are Tibetan Buddhist scholars who are talking about dialogue with non-believers such as Marxists. I think this is true among many Christian scholars and priests also who are trying to create a dialogue with Marxists in Europe and in the Soviet Union. On many of these levels I think there are people all over the world working in this direction. It is up to conferences like this Congress and people like yourselves who are interested and concerned in this matter to contribute your individual efforts. Thank you very much.

DR. KALUPAHANA: Thank you Mr. Tenzin. Now we will hear a few words from an initiative disciple of the Buddha and a Venerable Lama from Tibet, The Venerable Gesh Tenpa Gyaltsen.

THE VENERABLE GESHA: (Translated from Tibetan into English) First of all I would like to greet those people who have been organizing this conference and those who are attending this conference tonight. I am one of the humble followers, a humble priest of His Holiness, the Dalai Lama. With this opportunity for the followers of many different faiths to think about the word religion itself I hope that this kind of conference will be beneficial to many human beings. I would like to say a few words about why religion is important. There is no one who does not want to be happy or who does not wish to avoid suffering. Everyone should try to strive to achieve this happiness and remove the suffering. We cannot just be still and wait for ourselves to be happy and have our sufferings removed. In this we have to learn to remove the suffering and achieve happiness. And as a means to achieve this happiness and remove the suffering there is no other way but through religion and to be religious. I do not believe that we can achieve this result in any other way. I believe through religious practice we can achieve happiness for this life, for the next life, and for many lives to come. We can remove our suffering in the same way. Therefore I feel religion is very important. Even for this life there is nothing better than religious practice. For example, if we have a physical sickness or illness, there is a big difference in how we feel about this sickness, whether we have, or do not have a religious practice. If you do not have some religious practice, then you have the physical pain and also the mental stress. But if you accept religious practice then you can understand that this pain is a result of your previous deeds. Then you can lessen your feeling of illness. If you can feel that this is the result of your previous deeds then you can also lessen the physical pain. I personally feel that all sufferings which exist in myself are the results of my own ignorance of the right way of practice and either not knowing or not practicing the right way. But if you know the right way to religion, then you can eliminate these sufferings. If you practice the religious way then you will have calmness and peace throughout your life. I would again like to thank you all for this opportunity to think about religion together. I would like to pray for the happiness of all living beings and for the success of the goal which His Holiness is pursuing. Thank you.


1. My Land and My People (hereafter DLLP); NY: McGraw-Hill, 1962. The 1977 paperback edition is available from Rigpa Publications, London.

2. K.L. Seshagiri Rao, "Mohandas Gandhi and the Hindu Vision of Religious Co-existence," pp. 50-63 in Towards a Global Congress of World Religions: Conference Proceedings at Boston, ed. Warren Lewis; Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary, 1979.

3. DLLP-146. p.6.

4. The Geluk, Gelukpa, or Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism is called the Yellow Hat sect in the West, from the color of their hats in contrast to the Red Hats. The Geluk School began with the monastic reformer, Tsong-khapa (1357-1419), a monk from the Lake Koko Nor region in eastern Tibet -- western China. The founder's nephew was dGe'dun grub-pa (1391-1474), believed to be the first dGyal-ba-rin-po-che, the first incarnation of Chenrezi, the Indian Avalokiteshvara, the Buddha (or Bodhisattva or god or goddess) of Mercy, who is sometimes called the ancestor of the Tibetan people. This incarnation is the highest in the Geluk tradition. Gyalpo Rinpoche became the abbot of dGa-ldan monastery. The third hierarch in the tradition, Sonam Gyatso or bSod-nams rgya-mtsho (1475-1542) was given the title Talai or Dalai Lama by the Tumet Mongol ruler, Altan Khan (1543-1583). In 1578, he invited Sonam Gyatso to Tumet where he led the Mongols to their second conversion. "Talai" is Mongol for "ocean" or "ocean-wide." "Lama" is the Tibetan equivalent of the Sanskrit "guru" and is sometimes translated "superior one." In 1642, Gushri Khan of the Khoshoot Mongols, gave control of Tibet to the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngag-dband blo-bzang rgya-mtsho (1617-1682). Each Dalai Lama is believed to be the incarnation of the previous one, going back to Chenrezi or Chenresi. KCFT-10-12, 68-69. Helmut Hoffman, et al.. Tibet. A Handbook (hereafter HTH); Bloomington: Indiana University, 1975, "Chronological Table," pp. 239-245. NCE-2744-2745 DLLP -- 21, 240. Young Oon Kim, World Religions. Vol. 3: NY: Golden Gate Publishing Co., 1976. STC-139, says Gediin-trup was already the 51st incarnation of Chenrezi.

5. His full name is Ngawang Lobsang Yishey Tenzin Gyatso. It is also transliterated bstan-'dzim rgya-mtsho. He was found at the age of two by a search party in the village of Taktser near Kumbum, east of Lake Koko Nor in Dokham, a Tibetan area of western China. He was installed in Lhasa on the Lion Throne in Potala Palace, as the 14th Dalai Lama in 1940. The location of the reincarnated 13th Dalai Lama had been indicated in visions to the Regent at the sacred Lake Lhamoi Latso, ninety miles south east of Lhasa. The search party was disguised. The boy recognized their holy calling, saw through the disguises and distinguished the lama from the servant. When offered the 13th Dalai Lama's rosary, drum and walking stick along with replicas, he picked out the originals.

The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso or Thub-bstan-rgyamtsho, was born in 1875, enthroned in 1879 and died in 1933. He was the strongest Dalai Lama since the "Great Fifth." It was in this period that Tibet had a number of contacts with other nations. In 1904, Francis Younghusband, the later founder of the World Congress of Faiths, led British troops to Lhasa and secured trade concessions. Younghusband had a vision or experience of at-oneness with the universe which later led to his establishment of the WCE KCFT-10, 11 n„ 18, 60, 69, 95. DLLP-5-43. HTH-239-246. Marcus Braybrooke, Inter-faith Organizations. 1893-1979; NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1980, pp. 20-28.

6. DLLP-18.

7. DLLP-64-67.

8. Armed conflict lasted from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. Negotiations continue. A visit to the so-called De-militarized Zone (DMZ) shows the tensions remain very high and very real.

9. Noel Barber, From the Land of Lost Content: The Dalai Lama's Fight for Tibet: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. "The Lhasa Uprising, March 1954," Tibetan Review 2, No. 3 (1969), 1-24. DLLP-155-223.

10. United Nations, General Assembly. Official Records. 5th Session, Annexes, vol. 1 (1950): 16-18. Memorandum (Document A/1534) from the chairman of the delegation of El Salvador to the president of the General Assembly about invasion of Tibet by foreign forces; memorandum (Document A/1549) of Tibetan delegation to the Secretary General about invasion of Tibet by China.

. Official Records. 5th Session, General Committee, 73rd meeting, November 24, 1950, pp. 17-20. Debate on "Invasion of Tibet by foreign forces."

. Official Records. 14th Session, Plenary Meetings, (1959), 831st to 834th Plenary Meetings, October 20-21, 1959, pp. 469 530. Debate on the question of Tibet.

. Official Records. 20th Session, Plenary Meetings, Vol. 3 (1965), 1394th Plenary Meeting, December 14th, 1965, pp. 1-10. Debate on the question of Tibet. Document A/1549, the UN Statement of October 21, 1959 and the 1961 Resolution are reprinted with relevant correspondence in Appendix II, DLLP 249-264. KCFT-109.

11. DLLP-pp. 226-227.

12. It was formerly known as The Voice of Tibet. The Review began publication in January, 1968. It is a monthly magazine published in Darjeeling, India.

13. Stuart R. Schram, ed. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tsetung; NY: Praeger, 1967. John De Francis, Annotated Quotations from Chairman Mao; New Haven; Yale University Press, 1975.

14. The Dalai Lama's Historic Visit to North America: NY: Clear Light Press, 1981. The paperback edition is available from Rigpa in London.

15. DLLP-pp. 231-232.

16. "Portrait of Change: Tibet Special Report," Asiaweek 7, No. 45 (13 Nov 81), 34-38. Editor's Note: Cf. also Alan Hamilton. "Time of Change for Tibet," The Illustrated London News 270. no. 7003 (Feb 82), 44-45. KCFT-101-109, has an extensive bibliography. Cf. also "Tibet," "Tibetan Art and Architecture," "Tibetan Buddhism," "Tibetan Language," NCE-2744-2745. HTH has an extensive bibliography for each section of the Handbook. In addition, note pp. 93-173, an overview of Tibetan religion: Folk Religion, the Shamanist Bon (Pon) Religion, and Buddhism. The last is described in terms of its introduction to Tibet and the development of its eight schools of thought. STC-305-316 has a bibliography of over 200 items. Religion is discussed in pp. 164 247. Appendix I, DLLP-235-248, is "An Outline of the Buddhism of Tibet." Cf. also the Dalai Lama's The Opening of the Wisdom-Eye and the History of the Advancement of Buddhadharma in Tibet; Wheaton, 111.; The Theosophical Publishing House 1966, and Universal Responsibility and the Good Heart,, 1980, paperback available from Rigpa. The Buddhism of Tibet and the Key to the Middle Way; London: George Allenand Unwin, 1975. DLLP-69 says Tibet was unified under a king in 127 B.C. KCFT-67 says they came from Magadha (Bihar) when Asoka's empire broke up (c. 185 B.C.). The first 27 kings were of the Bon religion. The first Buddhist literature arrived in the time of the 28th, King Lha-Tho-Ri-Nyen-Tsen, when the Kushans were ruling northern India and inner Asia. The real beginning of Buddhism, however was during the reign of the 33rd, King Song-Tsen-Gampo (KCFT-12 dates him 605-650 while HTH-239 gives 620-649). In addition to his three Tibetan wives, he married Chinese and Nepalese princesses, both of whom were Buddhist. 

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