Articles From the December 1995 Unification News
New Translation of Divine Principle Set for Publication in Early 1996
by Dan Fefferman-NYC
Very soon, you'll be able to read the first new translation of the Divine Principle since the sacred text of Unificationism was first published in English back in 1973.
The current text is a direct translation from the Korean Wolli Kangron (Exposition of the Divine Principle), which was published in 1966. The earlier Wolli Hesul (Explanation of the Principle), was published in 1957. Both of these were written with Rev. Moon's guidance by Rev. Eu and represented a systematized exposition of the manuscript Wolli Wonbon (Original Text of the Divine Principle), which was written and dictated by Rev. Moon in Pusan during the Korean war. For the past thirty years, Wolli Kangron has served as the official text of Rev. Moon's basic teaching.
The first English edition of Wolli Kangron translated by Dr. Won Pok Choi appeared in early 1973. A second edition was published later that year. The second edition became the standard English version and was reprinted numerous times with various page sizes and covers. (Some of these printings were mistakenly identified as new editions on their title pages.) The second edition also served as the source text for most translations into other Western languages.
According to Unification Church publications director Michael Inglis, the new translation should be available shortly after the new year and and will be titled, Exposition of the Divine Principle. It will be published in number of different editions:
A full size deluxe bible-bound color version with ribbon and gilded edges
A paperback black and white edition
A paperback black and white pocket edition
An unbound hole punched lecturer color edition
Heading up the translation team were Mr. Jin Goon Kim and Dr. Andrew Wilson, with substantial help from Mr. Inglis and Mrs. June Saunders. The year-long project was conducted at the Unification Theological Seminary in Barrytown and the Church Headquarters in New York City. It included a consultation with the original translator, Dr. Choi, in Seoul, and several meetings with Church founder Rev. Sun Myung Moon.
The new translation was authorized by Rev. Moon in association with a color-coding project, designed as a study guide for members and lecturers. In the color-coded version, the most essential material will be printed in red, important material will be printed in blue, and the next level material will be printed in green. Lecturers wishing to give a summary overview of the Principle can stick with only the text in red. When giving more thorough elaborations they can add blue and green text as needed.
Translator Jin Goon Kim was uniquely qualified for the job of rendering the sacred text into English. A native born Korean raised in the U.S., he is the adopted son of Rev. Won Pil Kim, one of Rev. Moon's earliest disciples, and the natural son of the late Rev. Hyo Won Eu, the UC's first president. Since Rev. Eu authored the Korean version of Divine Principle under Rev. Moon's guidance, it was significant to have his son work on the translation.
Although the team points out that "the core teachings of the Divine Principle were not touched at all," the new translation does represent a major change from its predecessor.
"Our approach was non-literal," says Mr. Kim. "It seeks to communicate the thought, more than the exact words of the original." Dr. Choi had adopted a more literal approach in the original translation.
A draft of the translators' preface explains, "The Korean language has a structure and sensibility very different from English. Sometimes a literal translation shrouds profound thought in obscurity and does not convey complex argumentation in a manner intelligible to the Western reader."
The translating team sought "to accurately render the meaning of the Korean text into clear English, even if it meant breaking up sentences and rearranging the order of thought in a manner more suitable to the Western mind. At times we had to use creative phraseology, rather than a dictionary definition, to evoke comparable understandings, feelings and cultural associations."
Reading the new translation, one notices that the language has a more contemporary feel that the previous version. Sentences are shorter and less complex. Words have been updated, too. For example:
the generic term "man" has been replaced by "humans."
the terms "subject and object" are now rendered as "subject partner and object partner."
the title of one chapter has been changed from "Providential Age of Restoration and Age of the Prolongation of Restoration from the Standpoint of Providential Time Identity" to "The Parallels between the Two Ages in the Providence of Restoration."
"The whole thing flows more smoothly now," reflects Mrs. Saunders. "It's a lot less circular and convoluted. It's the same message, but it feels refreshed, almost like new material."
In addition to stylistic changes, the new translation has moved the biblical references from the text to the footnotes. It also clarifies confusing passages which resulted from differences between the Korean and English translations of the Bible. The team also created a new numbering system with four levels. The running head indicates not only which chapter but also the section and subsection; this greatly eases finding specific sections and is very similar in function to the chapter and verses we find in all Bibles.
The team spent long hours going over every sentence in the book after Mr. Kim and Dr. Wilson's initial rendering. Sometimes a whole afternoon was spent on a single paragraph.
"When we felt stuck, we'd back off, think about it, and then a clear solution would come later." explained Mr. Kim. "We definitely felt guided to concentrate on certain points."
Members of the translating team took the job very seriously. "Things happening around us confirmed the importance of the project," said Mr. Kim. "There were also moments where the internal world and external world seemed to resonate," he continued. "For instance, we'd be dealing with a certain historical period during the day, and then I'd happen to see a television documentary on the same subject that night. This happened several times. It was uncanny."
"I felt that President Eu was definitely working with Jin Goon," says Mrs. Saunders. "And one day while we were doing some editing, I seemed to hear his voice saying, `I am working with all of you.'"
Mr. Inglis also reported a spiritual experience. "I saw Jesus walking up a hill. He was carrying a huge cross. I was struck by how big and heavy the cross was--about fourteen feet tall. He looked at me and asked, `Will this book carry my cross?' I pledged that it would. I interpreted this to mean that the new translation is meant to help us bring the Principle more effectively to Christians." June Saunders had a similar experience.
In addition to the four-person translation team, several other advisors and consultants worked on the project, including Mrs. Choi, Rev. Joong Hyun Pak, Rev. Peter Kim, Dr. Tyler Hendricks, myself (Dan Fefferman), Dr. John Sonneborn, Mike Balcomb, Tom Bowers, Jonathan Gullery, Kathryn Coman and Il Hyun Kim.
Sidebar - quotes to be laid out side by side in Columns.
What then is the relationship between internal character and external form? The invisible internal character is the cause and is in the subjective position, while the visible external form is the result of the former and stands in an objective position to it. Accordingly, the reciprocal relationship which exists between the two is one of internal and external, cause and result, subject and object, or vertical and horizontal. (p 22)
From the above, we can see that Jesus' crucifixion was the result of the ignorance and disbelief of the Jewish people and was not God's predestination to fulfill the whole purpose of Jesus coming as the Messiah. I Corinthians 2:8 says, "None of the rulers of the age understood this; for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory." This should be sufficient proof. (p. 145)
God's form is also mathematical. Therefore, the world of creation, centering on man, is the substantial object of God, with His dual essentialities mathematically developed. For this reason, the development of science, which is searching for the principle of created things on the horizontal plane, is possible only by mathematical research. (p. 381)
What is the relationship between internal nature and external form? The internal nature is intangible and causal, and stands in the position of a *subject partner* to the external form; the external form is tangible, resultant, and stands in the position of an *object partner* to the internal nature. The mutual relationships between these two aspects of an entity include: internal and external, cause and result, subject partner and object partner, vertical and horizontal. (p 17)
From all the above evidence, we can deduce that Jesus' death on the cross was not necessary for the complete fulfillment of his mission as the Messiah. Rather, his death was the unfortunate outcome of the ignorance and disbelief of the people of his day. This is well illustrated by Jesus' last words on the cross: "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do." (p 105)
The Principle by which God exists has a numerical aspect. The universe, with human beings at its center, was created based on numerical principles to be the unfolding of the dual characteristics of the invisible God as His substantial object partner. This is the reason science, which seeks to discover the external laws governing the universe, progresses only through research conducted with the aid of mathematics. (p. 263)
For the next few months we will print chosen excerpts from the new Exposition of the Divine Principle
Introduction - pages 3 - 5
We can discern two broad courses in the search for solutions to the fundamental questions of human life. In the first, people have searched within the resultant, material world. Those who walk this path, believing it to be the supreme way, kneel before the glories of highly developed science. They take pride in its omnipotence and the material comforts it provides. Nevertheless, can we enjoy full happiness founded only upon external conditions that satisfy the flesh? The advance of science may create a comfortable social environment in which we can enjoy abundant wealth and prosperity, but can that alone truly gratify the spiritual desires of the inner self?
The passing joys of those who delight in the pleasures of the flesh are nothing compared to the bliss experienced by those on the path of enlightenment, who find joy in the midst of simple poverty. Gautama Buddha, who abandoned the luxuries of the royal palace and became enraptured in the pursuit of the Way, was not the only one who wandered about homeless while searching for his heart's resting place. Just as a healthy body depends upon a sound mind, so too the joy of the body is complete only when the mind is content.
What of the sailor who voyages on the sea of the material world under the sail of science in search of physical comforts? Let him reach the coast for which he longs. He eventually will come to realize that it is nothing more than the very graveyard where his body will be buried.
Where is science heading? Until now, scientific research has not embraced the internal world of cause; it has limited itself to the external world. It has not embraced the world of essence, but has limited itself to the world of phenomena. However, science today is entering a new phase. It is compelled to elevate its gaze from the external and resultant world of phenomena to the internal and causal world of essence. The scientific world has begun to recognize that science cannot achieve its ultimate goals without a theoretical explanation of the causal, spiritual world.
When the sailor, who has completed his voyage in search of external truth under the sail of science, adds another sail, the sail of religion, and embarks on a new voyage in search of internal truth, he finally will be headed toward the destination for which his original mind yearns.
The second course of human endeavor is the attempt to answer the fundamental questions about human life by transcending the resultant world of phenomena and searching in the world of essence. Undeniably, philosophies and religions which have pursued this path have made many contributions. Philosophers, saints and sages set out to pave the way of goodness for the people of their times. Yet their accomplishments have become added spiritual burdens for the people of today.
Consider this objectively. Has any philosopher ever arrived at the knowledge that could solve humanity's deepest anguish? Has any sage ever clearly illuminated the path by resolving all the fundamental questions of human life and the universe? Have not their teachings and philosophies raised more unsettled questions, thus giving rise to skepticism?
Furthermore, the lights of revival which religions of every age cast upon the many souls who were groping in the darkness have faded with the onward flow of history. They have left only dim, sputtering wicks glimmering in the falling darkness.
Examine the history of Christianity. Professing the salvation of humankind, Christianity has expanded through a two-thousand-year tumultuous history, extending its influence throughout the world in the present era. Yet what has become of the Christian spirit that once cast flames of life so brilliant that, despite the most brutal persecution by the Roman empire, Roman citizens were brought to their knees before the crucified Jesus? Medieval feudal society buried Christianity alive. Even though the Reformation raised high the torch of new life, its flame could not turn back the sweeping tide of darkness.
When ecclesiastic love expired, when waves of capitalistic greed surged across Christian Europe, when starving masses cried out bitterly in the slums, the promise of their salvation came not from heaven but from the earth. Its name was communism. Christianity, though it professed the love of God, had degenerated into a dead body of clergy trailing empty slogans. It was then only natural that a banner of rebellion would be raised, arguing that a merciless God who would allow such suffering could not exist. Hence, modern materialism was born. Christian society became a hotbed of materialism; it was the fertile soil in which communism flourished.
Christianity lost the ability to equal the successes of either communism or materialism and failed to present the truth that could conquer their theories. Christians watched helplessly as these ideologies budded and thrived in their midst and expanded their influence all over the world. What a pity this is! What is more, although Christian doctrine teaches that all humanity descended from the same parents, many citizens of Christian nations who profess this doctrine will not even sit together with their brothers and sisters of different skin colors. This illustrates the actual situation of today's Christianity, which has lost the power to put the words of Jesus into practice. It has become a house of lifeless rituals, a whitewashed tomb.
The Principle of Creation - pages 24 - 25
2.3 The Four Position Foundation Which Realizes The Three Object Purpose Through Origin-Division-Union Action
2.3.1 Origin-Division-Union Action
The process of God's creation begins when the dual characteristics within God form a common base through the prompting of universal prime energy. As they engage in give and take action, they generate a force that engenders multiplication. This force projects the dual characteristics into separate substantial object partners, each relating to God as its center. These object partners to God then assume the position of subject partner and object partner to each other as they are prompted by the universal prime energy to form a common base and engage in give and take action. They then join together in one harmonious union to form a new object partner to God. This whole process-in which out of God, the Origin, two entities are separately manifested and reunited in oneness-is called origin- division-union action.
2.3.2 The Three Object Purpose
As a result of origin-division-union action, four positions are formed: the origin at the center, the subject partner and the object partner (distinct substantial object partners to the origin in the
pattern of its dual characteristics), and their union. Any one of the
four positions may assume the position of subject partner and engage the other three as its object partners, forming a communion of three object partners. When each of the four then acts as the subject partner and enters into give and take with the other three revolving around it, they fulfill the three object purpose.
2.3.3 The Four Position Foundation
When through origin-division-union action, the origin, the subject partner and object partner projected from the origin, and their union all fulfill the three object purpose, the four position foundation is established.
The four position foundation is the root of the number four. It is also the root of the number three, because it is the fulfillment of the three object purpose. The four position foundation is realized by God, husband and wife, and children; they complete the three stages of origin-division-union action. Hence, the four position foundation is the root of the principle of three stages. Furthermore, each of the four positions in the four position foundation takes on three object partners in fulfilling the three object purpose. In total there are twelve object partners; hence, it is the root of the number twelve. The four position foundation is the fundamental foundation of goodness. It is the realization of God's purpose of creation. It is the fundamental foundation for the life of all beings, providing all the forces necessary for their existence and enabling God to abide in them. Therefore, the four position foundation is God's eternal purpose of creation.
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