Articles From the May 1994 Unification News
Federation for World Peace Second World Peace Conference - Peace and the 21st Century
by William P. Selig
Although we face a world of disorder today, instead of a new world order, it is still merely a transition from the cold war to the order of the future. In order to successfully manage this transition, 42 former heads of state and government, and prime ministers from 70 different countries spanning all 6 continents, contributed their thoughts, experience, and time to the Second World Peace Conference on Peace and the 21st Century. This conference, cosponsored by the Federation for World Peace, the Summit Council for World Peace and the Segye Ilbo, was held in Seoul, Korea from March 26-29, 1994.
The Long Road to Victory
It was in April 1990, at the historic joint Summit Council and World Media Conference that Rev. and Mrs. Sun Myung Moon met with then- President Mikhail Gorbachev. Since that eventful meeting, the Providence has moved with surprising speed in the former Soviet Union. Despite the many challenges facing the former Empire, it is clear that Heaven seeks after a champion with the vision and courage that typified the revolutionary social and economic programs known commonly as perestroika and glasnost. With these thoughts firmly implanted in Father's mind, direction was given to approach Mr. Gorbachev and proceed with the Second World Peace Conference.
To make a long story short, as Dr. Pak would say, it was quite a battle to bring Mr. Gorbachev to Seoul. We were tasked to find the schedule that would fit into the calendars of two of the world's busiest people. Mr. Gorbachev, since his resignation from office, has become a very sought after speaker.
Once the keynote speaker was secured, the invitation process which has been so successful in the past was set into motion. Mark Barry drafted a background piece as part of the invitation packet. Suggestions were received from around the world from national leaders and missionaries. This is a very dear part of our mission. Each country aches to have someone represent their homeland. They call our office over and over again, as if to say, "I'm offering my spiritual child, you must take care of him." Schedules, hotel reservations, this and that, were made, changed, re-confirmed, and finally we drew near the end. With the conference set to start just a week away, the staff was ready to board the plane for Korea, yet names were still coming in. Despite a clearly stated deadline, the missionaries refused to give up. "Just one more."
Land of the Morning Calm
With only a few days before the inaugural meeting, there were a million and one details to take care of. Antonio Betancourt was in Beijing attempting to obtain an invitation from North Korea to take our guests across the border at Panmunjom. This is an incredible story in itself. We did indeed receive permission from the North, but the trip occurred a week after our conference, and the group crossed not at Panmunjom, but out of Beijing. The entourage included several former heads of state, and representatives from the Washington Times, CNN, and NHK of Japan.
In attempting to organize a crossing at the 38th parallel, Antonio met with officials from the U.S. State and Defense Departments, but in the end, the idea was nixed by the South who saw it as too risky during a particularly tense and dangerous negotiating period between the two sides. Just days before, the delegate from the North had described war in especially vivid terms: "Fire will fill the streets," he said. Meanwhile, back at the conference, with Antonio in China, the final brunt of the responsibilities fell on the shoulders of William Selig, who along with seasoned professional conference managers, Tomiko Duggan, Larry Moffitt and Paul Tobkin, were tasked to pull this important program together. A special thanks goes to the Korean brothers and sisters who worked tirelessly to make this event a reality.
The Gorbachev's Arrival
Mikhail and Raisa Gorbachev alighted from the plane to a tumultuous welcome. They were accompanied by our brother Tom McDevitt who escorted them from Taiwan. There was a mob of reporters and a lightening barrage of photo flashes. The Speaker of the Korean Assembly designated Dr. Pak as their official representative to receive the Gorbachevs. Flowers were presented and off they went to the Hotel Lotte with a police escort. At the hotel, more flowers and photographs. Truly they were received as visiting royalty. The Korean public opened their hearts.
The next day, Saturday (March 25) after a well-attended news conference, President Gorbachev traveled to the home of True Parents for lunch and private discussions. Mrs. Gorbachev had come down with a cold and remained in the hotel. The visit was extremely amicable. Father and Mother presented an original oil painting of Mr. Gorbachev done by a famous Korean artist. True Mother was the ideal hostess. There were many photographs and it was a delightful reunion since the last meeting was in Moscow back in April 1990.
That evening the show began! The receiving line included Mr. Gorbachev, Sir Edward Heath of Great Britain, Edward Schreyer of Canada and Dr. & Mrs. Rodrigo Carazo of Costa Rica. After a prominent Korean congressman offered a beautiful toast, Father and Mother cut the celebratory cake to officially open the Second World Peace Conference.
Opening Inaugural Session
The Founder was introduced by former Prime Minister of Egypt, H. E. Abdelaziz Hegazy. Father's address is reprinted elsewhere in this issue, but in essence he told the heads of state and government that in reality there is no secret path to world peace. The answer lies in hard work, period. A united mind and body on the individual level is the first step towards global peace, end of story.
Headwing Ideology can return humanity to the state of God and therefore of peace by reunifying the mind and the body. To accomplish this unity, the Four Great Realms of the Heart o that is, the love of the child, sibling love, marital love, and love of one's parents o will reach perfection when human beings are centered on God, marry each other, and conceive children whom are then raised in that environment of perfect family love. That love within the family is the seed for all love and peace. Once it is achieved, familial love will extend from the family, to country, to the world, and beyond into the cosmos. It is at this point that true peace will be achieved. He extolled the world leaders to take an active role in the Federation for World Peace.
Headwing vs. Perestroika vs. Juche
In his Keynote Address, former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev noted that this conference was particularly special because it was held in Seoul, where what is commonly noted as the last cold war-era conflict still rages: the conflict on the Korean peninsula. It is here where the tension along the 38th parallel, separating people with the same language, the same culture, and the same history, also contains the nuclear threat based in Pyongyang, which captures the attention, energy, and hostility of the major powers of the emerging world order.
Gorbachev also stated that one of the greatest crises that the new world order must address is the moral degradation of mankind. Therefore, leaders should help incorporate a standard of morality and ethics into the world.
Association for the Unity of Latin America
The Gorbachevs were invited to receive a certificate of honor from AULA, the Association for the Unity of Latin America. The Latin American Order of Liberty and Unity is a beautiful gold plaque medallion and sash, and has been presented to numerous heads of state and international leaders. The Gorbachev's were visibly moved. One of the best photos of the conference was captured by Paolo Galli, the staff photographer when True Parents, and Mr. and Mrs. Gorbachev are all holding hands and shining with heavenly happiness. Making the presentation was Amb. Jose Maria Chaves, President of AULA. He was assisted by former Presidents Rodrigo Carazo of Costa Rica and Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru.
If all this wasn't enough, the Little Angels marched out to sing several selections including "We are the World," and "Hand in Hand." The Little Angels Performing Arts Center had built an incredible stage in the shape of the Federation's logo and situated it in front of the head table. When this huge circle of 40 precious children began to sing, holding hands, swaying with the music, wearing these cute outfits and hats, there was not a dry eye in the house.
The Second World Peace Conference was comprised of four plenary sessions: (1) Vital Steps Toward Peace in the 21st Century, (2) The Reunification of Korea and the Role of the International Community, (3) Post Cold War Reconstruction: The Market Economy Model and Socialist Ideal, and (4) Restoration of the Global Environment.
In addition, a number of guest speakers presented addresses during luncheons and dinners, including, Hon. Frank Carlucci, former U.S. Secretary of Defense, Dr. Gavriil Popov, former Mayor of Moscow, and H.E. Apas Jumagulov, the current Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan.
The former prime minister of Great Britain, Sir Edward Heath suggested that institutionally, education should be improved and incorporate religious tolerance. Many of the wars today are between ethnic groups and competing organizations espousing different religious values. If every school taught the fundamentals of many different religions, and not just the individual country's predominant one, then tolerance would increase and, simultaneously, so would the chances for peace.
Another very interesting guest was Dr. Hanan Mikhail Ashrawi, a distinguished representative of the Palestinians. The media devoted alot of attention to her remarks. Maureen Reagan and Princess Eva Maria Andrej of Yugoslavia also attended.
Maureen Reagan said, "We thank Reverend and Mrs. Moon for their commitment to spiritual rebirth as a basis for world peace. Your optimism and your genuine affection for all humankind make you extraordinary allies in the battle to light even the darkest corners of the earth. President Reagan and I thank you both for your friendship."
The Gorbachev Visit
Although the Gorbachevs attended the conference functions, they were also kept busy with their own schedule. Introduced by Dr. Pak, Mr. Gorbachev addressed the Korean Parliament on Monday, March 28, and afterwards was hosted at lunch by the Speaker of the Assembly. Mr. Gorbachev also received an honorary doctorate from a Korean university. In between shopping expeditions, they met with the Chairman of the Hotel Lotte as well as with leaders from various major business corporations. Taking care of their needs were Mrs. Hyobon Robbins and Andrew Kessler who assisted as translator.
Discussion on the Korean Peninsula
Several prominent scholars discussed the Korean issue, including Robert A. Manning, a research associate at the Gaston Sigur Center for East Asian Studies from George Washington University, Mr. Selig Harrison, a senior associate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and Dr. William J. Taylor, Jr., Senior Vice President of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.
Dr. Taylor argued that the only way North and South Korea might miscalculate and go to war is if the rhetoric and pressure for international economic sanctions continues. If sanctions are imposed, Pyongyang might view war as a means to force negotiations, a superior alternative to economic and political isolation. Therefore, if the world wants to avoid war in Korea, sanctions should also be avoided.
H.E. Kenneth Kaunda, former president of Zambia, also proposed that a commission, composed of Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Sir Edward Heath, former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, and H.E. Mikhail Gorbachev, be formed to serve as a liaison between the two Koreas and between Korea and the international community. Regardless of the methods, in order for peace on the peninsula to become a reality, trust between the two Koreas must be enhanced. The threats and pressure that characterizes the current approach to Korea only undermine that fundamental trust.
The Middle East
Besides the conflict in Korea, calls were made to end another regional conflict and find a final solution for peace in the Middle East and the Palestinian crisis. Currently, the peace process is maintained as an end in and of itself, which is an artificial goal and can only produce an artificial peace. In order to truly obtain stability in the region, substance must be incorporated into the agenda for negotiations.
The current course was described as being more concerned with when the next meeting would be, rather than resolving this tragedy; in other words, according to Dr. Hanan Mikhail Ashrawi of the Palestinian Independent Commission for the Rights of Citizens, it is a process of "motion without direction." Initially, an end to the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories, a precondition for peace in the region, should be sought. Amb. Robert Neumann, former U.S. Ambassador to Morocco, Afghanistan and Iran, praised the United States for its role in the peace process, but called for Washington to put more pressure on Israel to seek an honest and proper solution to this tragic conflict. Time is short, it was emphasized, and there is a small window of opportunity, which, if missed, will not be reopened in the near future.
An entire session, chaired by the Rt. Hon. Edward Schreyer, former Governor General of Canada was devoted to a study of environmental issues. Guest speakers included, H.E. Francisco Bermudez, former President of Peru, Dr. Arthur J. Hanson and Dr. David Scott of Canada.
President Bermudez emphasized the need for a moral framework to guide our interaction with the environment in the future. Man consistently adapts his environment through the societies that people form and the interactions of those societies with their surroundings. In essence, the societies and the behavior of humanity must adjust to act in harmony with, rather than in opposition to, nature.
World Peace Declaration
A declaration was enthusiastically approved and signed by all the participants. In part, it reads, "We appeal to the people of all nations to support a new awakening toward a higher value perspective" that will uphold the sanctity of the family, engender genuine love and care for the earth, and treat the creation responsibly as a precious gift for future generations.
The document was beautifully done in calligraphy by our talented sister Debbie Leighton, who also did the certificates which AULA presented to the Gorbachevs.
As the guests enjoyed themselves at a reception, the Gorbachevs were entertained by the True Parents in their private chambers at the Little Angels Performing Arts Center. One of the pieces of furniture that dominates the room is a 10-foot long oriental panel with a life- size panorama photo of the True Family. The Gorbachevs who have only one daughter and two grandchildren were quite impressed by the size of the True Family.
After the reception, the head table were led into the auditorium for the evening banquet and entertainment. Amb. Phillip V. Sanchez served as Master of Ceremonies. Three events stand out in particular.
The Hon. Walter E. Fauntroy, former U.S. Congressman made a presentation of the recently passed Parents Day Resolution. Passed by the House of Representatives, it calls upon all private citizens and public institutions to observe July 28, 1994 as a day dedicated to the central importance of the family. With the authority of the U.S. Congress, it was a crowning moment to the Peace Conference.
Another very exciting event was the book exchange between Father and Mr. Gorbachev. Father presented to Mr. and Mrs. Gorbachev signed Divine Principle books. Father could not miss an opportunity to witness! At the same time, Mr. Gorbachev reciprocated with an autographed copy of one of his own books. The symbolism was powerful.
A beautiful trophy was also presented to Rev. and Mrs. Moon by the participants of the Second World Peace Conference in recognition of their contributions to world peace. Mr. Gorbachev made the presentation on behalf of the guests..
After a heavenly performance by the Little Angels, photo and more photos, everyone went home satisfied, happy and very tired.
The Second World Peace Conference was clearly one of the most ambitious programs to-date of the Unification Movement. True Parents, surrounded by 42 heads of state and government representing more than 70 nations, were elevated to their just stature and position. It was such a proud moment for us all when True Parents received standing ovations and were publicly recognized by such an august group for their contributions to world peace and development.
As we said good-bye to the guests, without exception, everyone conveyed their respects to True Parents and thanked us for one of the best programs they had ever attended.
We thank the True Parents for allowing us to work on this conference and to make this offering. We hope and pray that upon this foundation, brothers and sisters around the world can expand their works into the Completed Testament Era.
William Selig is the Administrative Director for the Summit Council for World Peace. Additional material was extracted from the Rapporteur's report which was drafted by Thomas Ward.
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