Unification News for December 2000

The Millennium Declaration of the United Nations: A Response from Civil Society

by Dr. Mark P. Barry

The Millennium Declaration of the United Nations: A Response from Civil Society" was held in New York at the United Nations Headquarters and New York Hilton Hotel from October 20-22, 2000. Hosted by the Mission of Indonesia to the United Nations and co-sponsored by the Interreligious and International Federation for World Peace (IIFWP) and World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO), it was attended by over 500 representatives of NGOs and civil society from 105 countries. H.E. Ambassador Makarim Wibisono, Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations, Dr. Chung Hwan Kwak, Chairman, IIFWP, and Dr. Wally N'Dow's, Secretary General, WANGO, co-chaired the conference.

The conference took place five weeks after the Millennium Summit of World Leaders convened at the United Nations attended by 150 heads of state, government and royalty -- the largest gathering of world leaders in history. The world leaders unanimously adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration at the Summit's conclusion (approved in General Assembly resolution 55/2). The document, itself derived from U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan's We the Peoples millennium report -- contains a statement of values, principles and objectives for the international agenda of the new century and sets deadlines for many collective actions. It is a significant statement outlining the shared values and those critical areas in need of serious consideration as we look into the new century and new millennium.

The co-sponsors convened this conference to respond to the Millennium Declaration -- the core results of the Millennium Summit -- in the belief that it is essential for representatives of civil society to enter into dialogue, as partners, with governments, and offer their wisdom, insight and recommendations, as called for by the Secretary General. The responses consisted of reactions from IIFWP, WANGO and individual NGOs who examined the Declaration in detail, including its stated values. The conference served to link constituent NGOs from within their tradition to the United Nations IIFWP's response focused on the role of the family, while WANGO specifically focused on the six values elaborated in the Declaration. These six enunciated values were intended to be linked to the larger community of NGOs, especially the religious and spiritual community and value-oriented NGOs, from within their respective traditions.

The partnership of governments, NGOs and civil society can help realize the vision and objectives of the Millennium Declaration. This conference represented the first such effort in the process of discussion, support and advocacy of the principles and objectives outlined in the Declaration. It also represented a follow-up effort by IIFWP, which sponsored "Assembly 2000: Renewing the United Nations and Building a Culture of Peace" at the United Nations in August, just prior to the Millennium Summit, to evaluate the results of the deliberations of the world's leaders.

The conference itself was structured around the eight major themes of the Millennium Declaration: 1. Values and principles; 2. Peace and security; 3. Development and poverty eradication; 4. Protecting our common environment; 5. Human rights, democracy and good governance; 6. Protecting the vulnerable; 7. Meeting the special needs of Africa; 8. Strengthening the United Nations

Presenters reviewed each of these subjects and offered recommendations. Special sessions were held on three additional topics of the potential partnership roles of NGOs: "NGOs as Partners in Debt Relief and Financing for Development," "NGOs as Partners in Values and Public Service," and "NGOs as Partners in Strengthening the Family." Discussion groups were then convened around the eight themes of the Millennium Declaration, in terms of how NGOs respond to the Declaration and how they can work together.

Opening Statements

At the opening of the conference, Dr. Neil A. Salonen, Secretary General of the IIFWP, welcomed the participants. He observed that many of the problems of our world transcend the traditional political questions with which the United Nations has traditionally dealt -- oftentimes, they become questions involving an entire region or the globe. Often the roots of conflict can be found in culture or religion rather than nationality. Thus, only a broader discussion and examination of a question that can bring about certain solutions. "The IIFWP vision," he said," is to create one network where members of the religious community can come together and give their advice to members of the political community with an eye toward broadening and transcending some of the solutions that have been limited by political questions in the past." The IIFWP has proposed a broader construction of the U.N. system so that there would be a formal way for world religious leaders to provide advice to the world political community. Dr. Salonen urged the NGO community represented in the conference to act in order to make a difference in the world: "if we do that, it will be a catalyst because I believe the time is right," he said.

Mr. Taj Hamad, Executive Director of WANGO, reminded NGO representatives of the significance of Habitat II, held in Istanbul in 1996, which was a landmark meeting for NGOs who were called to attend as full U.N. partners. Similarly, this conference is also a watershed for NGOs because it represents the inauguration of the first global association of NGOs. He observed that the Millennium Declaration made many promises to the next generation, and it is our responsibility to keep them; NGOs must work harder than before. He asked participants: What do you want to do with this Declaration? How can WANGO help you achieve what you want to do? How can we enhance NGO interrelationships, U.N.-NGO relations, and NGO-state relations? It is up to NGOs to seize the moment, he concluded.

Each of the Co-Chairs made preliminary remarks that set the tone for the deliberations. H.E. Dr. Makarim Wibisono observed that it is essential to examine and respond to the Millennium Declaration, the magnum opus of the world community through the United Nations, so that it contributes to the "creation of the worthiest world for us to live in." He said the eight categories of issues dealt with in the Declaration are the dominant challenges facing the world community in the 21st century. He stressed that the United Nations Charter epitomizes the intrinsic values and fundamental principles of international relations; its overarching goal is the enhancement of the human condition and the provision of human security. The Charter mandates that the United Nations create stability and well being to promote socio-economic progress. Today, he said, the challenge for governments and civil society is "how to collectively fashion an effective system of global governance to manage the massive changes, transforming the shape and substance of international relations at the onset of the millennium." Thus, in this context, the role of civil society, he noted, as partner of governments and the United Nations, cannot be over-emphasized, particularly in the follow-up of recommendations adopted by the Millennium Summit. Future global decisions will not only be decided by government representatives, but by representatives of global NGOs.

Co-Chair Dr. Chung Hwan Kwak, speaking from the perspective of the IIFWP, said that the world cannot achieve lasting peace without a greater partnership and cooperation between governments, civil society and the world's religions. Secondly, he stressed that the family as the foundation for world peace must be strengthened as it has profound social, moral and global significance. He then mentioned the three proposals made at Assembly 2000 at the United Nations by IIFWP Founder Rev. Sun Myung Moon: to establish a council of religious leaders within the structure of the United Nations; to establish peace zones under U.N. jurisdiction between the borders of nations in conflict; and, to establish a day of international appreciation for the family. Dr. Kwak noted that the IIFWP proposed at Assembly 2000 the development of an international educational program that emphasizes: 1. The importance of character education; 2. The profound social significance of the family; 3. The value of interreligious and international harmony and cooperation; 4. The need for a close cooperative relationship between NGOs and the United Nations; and; 5. The need to cultivate a universal attitude of living for the sake of others and build a team of global peace volunteers who embody these ideals.

In particular, he said that NGOs and civil institutions should act according to the highest moral standards and ethical norms, and avoid becoming too narrowly focused or self-interested; special interests should never cause us to overlook universal interests. Finally, he asserted that the "world is on the threshold of a great new moment, one in which the history of suffering, injustice and selfishness, can be transformed." This change will come through a change in culture or consciousness, which will also have the capability of providing practical solutions to global problems.

Co-Chair Dr. Wally N'Dow termed WANGO a new house for civil society and NGOs. In particular, he applauded its inclusion of the religious and spiritual dimension -- one that addresses human solidarity and the need for civilizational change. He noted that the rise of NGOs has been described as a power shift away from the government as the only authority over the human future, and to the non-state sector in the lives of people the world over. N'Dow said it was a watershed moment in the history of the United Nations when the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders convened inside the U.N. Headquarters in late August. It was a "fundamental acknowledgment that it is not enough to view the world mainly as a political arena for contest and competition, but it is more important as we move into the 21st century that we work for all or work for none, to bring the spiritual dimension into full focus." He said NGOs are teaching there is another kind of globalization, that counters or mitigates the negative effects of economic globalization: the globalization of the human spirit, of faith, a globalization from below, mediated by love and understanding by the non-governmental sector of humanity. N'Dow spoke of several ideas that should govern the partnership between NGOs and governments: 1. Global partnership as a way of reaching out across the boundaries of community, race and nationality; 2. Enablement so that partners can act properly and with energy; 3. Information technology as the backbone of NGO collaboration; and, 4. Leadership training as a foremost task of NGOs.

He contended that human security must no longer be seen in terms of how to protect national territory with military power, but in terms of educational, health, nutritional and other basic needs being met. He said NGOs are more than ever involved in a new humanitarianism of both conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction. Regarding economic globalization, he asserted that the world must not be viewed as a journey for trade and commerce, with life driven by market forces, but as the unfolding of a divine drama, where others' problems are one's own concern.

Reviewing the Millennium Declaration

The major points of the Millennium Declaration were then examined and evaluated by several scholars and NGO leaders. Ms. Deborah Moldow, Co-Chair of the Values Caucus, said thinking about values and principles uplifts our consciousness, putting us in touch with our sense of purpose and that which is noblest in the human spirit. Her belief is that all people share our highest values, and that a sense of shared values can be an important cross-cultural bridge to understanding and concerted action. She cited the six values and principles in the Declaration: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, and shared responsibility, which are reaffirmations of the principles of the U.N. Charter. The United Nations is the only repository for the world's values, and for 55 years has served as a laboratory for finding common expression of shared values, the common good. Of course, governments can sign on to a statement of values and go home to business as usual. But, in her view, governments are made up of people who have consciences, and can be prodded by the NGO community. She said that NGOs are known as the conscience of the United Nations.

Mr. Solo Dowuona-Hammond, President of the Olof Palme Peace Foundation, on the theme of development and poverty eradication, noted the lofty objectives in the Declaration, such as halving the world's extreme poverty by 2015. All of these goals hinge on the "recognition, promotion and protection of human rights and good governance." The right to development is an inalienable human right, and sustainable development places people at the core, viewing them as both a means and end of development, not as a means to other people's ends. Human rights and sustainable development, he said, are inextricably interwoven and mutually reinforcing. Regarding the North's apparent reluctance to implement debt forgiveness for lesser developed countries (LDCs), he suggested that the United Nations set up a committee within the Economic and Social Council that would operate an escrow account for LDC payments; from these payments, projects could then be undertaken in conjunction with LDC governments, the private sector and civil society. Thus, such an arrangement could ensure the efficient and judicious use of resources, avoiding corruption and the cancellation of debt.

Dr. Nicholas Kittrie, Chairman of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Justice and Peace, addressed the theme of human rights, democracy and good governance by first highlighting the chasm between the Declaration's espoused values and the reality. He asked how much credibility lies behind a resolution of an international assembly which, after 55 years since its creation and the issuance of innumerable declarations, permits nearly half of the world's population to subsist on less than $2 per day. The Declaration sets out to attain seven specific human rights objectives, including upholding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet, for example, of the 190 U.N. member states, only 95 have signed the existing protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Thus, there are many words, promises and resolutions, but far less in the way of actions. There is little hard evidence of how many Declaration objectives are indeed being implemented. Moreover, the Declaration demands that governments not merely refrain from doing wrong and evil, but requires, in effect, "participation, sensitivity, and cooperation by people, churches, mosques, synagogues, temples, [youth] organizations, labor unions, scholars, and philosophers," he said. True implementation of the U.N. objectives calls for popular support and popular vigilance, not merely governmental pronouncements. This is why, Dr. Kittrie said, that a civil response is required, and a civil mobilization needed, to build a better world.

Dr. Yvette Stevens, Office of the Special Coordinator for Africa and the Least Developed Countries, U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, discussed meeting the special needs of Africa. She said that in the Millennium General Assembly there was general support for a comprehensive and integrated approach to be taken toward conflict prevention in Africa, including peace-building, poverty eradication, development and democracy. The Security Council's agenda centered on how to enhance U.N. effectiveness in the maintenance of international peace and security in Africa. It spoke to the need to address pressing social and economic problems, to ensure robust African economic growth, and integration into the world economy as essential elements of conflict prevention. It also gave prominence to post-conflict peace-building, reducing the spread of disease, especially HIV/AIDS and malaria, and the problem of illicit trade in natural resources, including diamonds. At the Millennium Summit, 35 African heads of state spoke, noting that Africa is a microcosm of the challenges the United Nations will face in the 21st century. Several called for the creation of a global assistance fund to be used for poverty eradication. Many leaders also called for debt cancellation so that resources could be reallocated for pressing economic and social needs. Dr. Stevens noted that Southern African leaders said HIV/AIDS is the challenge of the millennium for their countries, and that the United Nations and the private sector must work together to seek an effective remedy to this pandemic. Leaders also complained that African countries have been unable to harness the opportunities of globalization. They advocated fair terms of trade, open markets, strengthening capacity and narrowing the digital divide. British Prime Minister Tony Blair called for a "new partnership for Africa where all the problems are dealt in a coherent and unified plan." Leaders also observed that, in order to reduce poverty, concrete steps need to be taken to increase official development assistance (ODA). Overall, she noted, the Millennium Summit deliberations, as reflected in the Declaration, called for a new deal for Africa to address the plight of poverty, conflicts and HIV/AIDS, based on the independent thinking of Africans and a comprehensive approach by its partners.

Dr. Allan Gerson, Director of the War-to-Peace Transition Project at the New America Foundation, discussed strengthening the United Nations. He observed the post-Cold War period has been primarily characterized by civil wars and internal or intrastate wars. These forms of warfare result from the vicious cycle or reactions of war and poverty: armed conflicts weaken the ability of the state to provide minimal social services and development, and this inability further fuels grievances and a readiness to take up arms. Only the creation of employment opportunities can nurture and sustain fragile peace agreements, and this will require a greater partnering between the United Nations and international financial institutions. The United Nations, he said, is essentially a political institution that does not know much about economics. NGOs can successfully act as intermediaries between the United Nations and these international financial institutions. Finally, he called for a new structure in the United Nations that gives a voice to NGOs and the private sector so that they can work better together in a collaborative way.

The other three major themes of the Millennium Declaration - peace and security, protecting our common environment, and, protecting the vulnerable - were addressed by a reading of the relevant article of the Declaration itself.

Debt Relief and Financing for Development

Mr. N'Dow gave an overview of the problem of debt and financing for development. He noted that many governments are at war with their own people, and that a large part of that war is caused by abject poverty and the lack of meeting basic human security needs. He stressed that the poor are not only poor but also vulnerable, especially women and children. He discussed the subject of debt relief, which has been led by NGOs throughout the world with some success. Raising the subject of unequal trade, and the achievement of trade with equity, he recounted that indexation - indexing what one nation produces to what that nation needs to purchase - had been extensively worked on by world leaders a quarter century ago, but the deliberations did not bear fruit. After the Cold War, he observed that we now have a war for resources and markets, which impacts on development. We must examine, he said, the relationship between the arms trade and poverty, under-development and civil strife. Finally, he reminded participants that 2001 will see a major United Nations conference on financing development, in which NGOs must actively participate.

Dr. P. Basak, speaking on behalf of Mr. Oscar de Rojas, Executive Coordinator of the Financing for Development Secretariat of the United Nations, agreed with Dr. N'Dow that a new war of grabbing natural resources is taking place. He said 80 per cent of the Declaration directly or indirectly concerns environmental degradation. Three questions need to be answered: what can be done to keep the planet healthy, lively and full of vitality; what types of sustainable development programs can be undertaken to obviate environmental problems; and, from where can the finances be mobilized for such development? He focused on the last question, and emphasized that all economic decisions have to be integrated with the environment of that country. This is because conservation and restoration that ignores human needs is not sustainable. He then proceeded to give six examples of how this integration may be accomplished, and in the process, funds obtained without asking from major world bodies.

Values and Public Service

Dr. Frank Kaufmann, Executive Director of the Inter-Religious Federation for World Peace, discussed the theme of values in a theoretical and philosophical level. He observed that a clear delineation of values must underlie all attempts to chart a positive course for the United Nations in its second fifty years. He described in greater detail the formulation of curricula, as mentioned earlier by Dr. Kwak, that infuses the wisdom of the ages into the contemporary values listed in the Declaration, as well as arriving at sound and tested pedagogical methods to transmit these values to others.

Dr. Kathy Winings, Vice President, International Relief Friendship Foundation, discussed integrating values and service. She argued that NGOs have learned that for sustainable change to occur, it requires the efforts of more than one generation and more than one sector of society. Now is the time to go beyond the confines of our own particular spheres of responsibility if we are to fulfill the Declaration. Education is needed not merely for literacy and intellectual development, but for the "knowledge that we gain through learning from our past and from the wisdom of our cultural and religious heritage. This is education in the six values in the Millennium Declaration." Such education, she said, provides the vision, motivation and direction toward which we must go, as a global society, but it is especially needed by the coming generations who will substantially shape the future. Service projects are one way to bring to society those values that can contribute to creating a culture of peace. Dr. Winings said that the "beauty of responding to these values is that it challenges our tendencies toward isolated disciplines and provides an arena in which intercultural, interreligious and interdisciplinary cooperation can occur naturally and harmoniously."

Dr. Andrew Wilson, Associate Professor of Biblical Studies at Unification Theological Seminary, spoke of crafting a global curriculum for WANGO that offers the wisdom of the world's religions and cultures as they elucidate the values underlying the Millennium Declaration. He stated he is against the notion that globalization must flatten the world's cultural diversity. The world's cultures will address values rooted in their respective religious traditions. Of course, this raises the question if various cultures will arrive at divergent rather than common values. American educators, Dr. Wilson noted, have successfully overcome the problem posed by culturally determined values through a process of evaluating values by consensus. Character education today in the United States emphasizes values remarkably similar to the six listed in the Declaration. He said he was therefore convinced that we can meet in a common affirmation of these six values. Moreover, he suggested that the centrality of the family, including respect and care for the elderly, be additionally affirmed given that it was not included in the Declaration.

Strengthening the Family

Dr. David Blankenhorn, President of the Institute for American Values, discussed why all states should recognize and protect the family. He said, "[G]overnments must recognize and respect the natural family in much the same way, and for exactly the same reason, that they must recognize and respect human rights, since the natural family s a gift from nature and nature's God, thereby constituting a fundamental dimension of human flourishing.." The family is cradle of civil society, its first and most important institution. He decried "no fault divorce" in the United States, which he termed unilateral divorce. For the state arbitrarily to declare that a marriage may be immediately and unilaterally broken by either spouse for any or no reason is, in essence, to abolish any legal recognition of marriage. He urged that a coordinated, international, multi-sector social movement be begun to strengthen and defend the institution of marriage.

Ms. Phyllis Bennett, faith-based liaison for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, noted that this year's World Summit on Social Development, sponsored by the United Nations, declared the family as the basic unit of society, playing a key role in social development, and pledged to promote a strengthened role for the family. She said we must recognize that the profound importance of the family transcends cultural and religious boundaries.

Karen Judd-Smith, IIFWP Director of Development and Public Affairs, said the family is the vehicle to implement the very things that allow us to create a culture of peace on earth. "Every single person builds peace through day-to-day relationships within the family," she said. It is within the family that one first learns, through the example of parents, how to live for the sake of others. The issues of poverty and sustainable development can first be creatively solved within the family framework. Thus, the marriage relationship and family is the core from which we can transform our society, she said.

Rev. Dr. David Randle, President of Wellness Health and Lifestyle Education, discussed the interrelationship of global perspectives, culture and religion, and leadership education. He noted that the process of leadership has everything to do with being effective in facing challenges of the material world, and today, it has been discovered that challenges are most successfully met and overcome by whole groups tapping into such things as purpose, passion and compassion, which lie at the core of human beings. He said the call to leadership is now more like a journey than a job, a journey to the heart and soul to remember the values and visions that most inspire us and reawaken the experience of deeply caring for ourselves and others. When it comes to the effectiveness of an organization or program, it depends upon people and how well they are able to interact to make a difference. He stated the chief relationship skill is communication that can create breakthrough results.

NGO Discussion Groups

Eight discussion groups met simultaneously on each of the main themes of the Millennium Declaration:

The Values and Principles group noted the roots of Western culture are grounded in the wisdom of the community, but has degenerated today into an obsession with the rights of individuals. Some participants felt that the Declaration reflected the values of only the North not the less developed South. Representatives called for the creation of a values structure that all can agree upon.

The Peace and Security group asked WANGO to develop a culture of peace, which would include education against drugs and armaments, and for education in peace and tolerance. They called for WANGO to be a mediator, negotiator and implementer of peace zones, as elaborated by Rev. Moon.

The Development and Poverty Eradication group called for NGOs to be interconnected on the local, national, regional and global levels. They noted that education of those in poverty is important, as oftentimes the poor simply do not have the opportunities to develop themselves. NGOs should help manage official development assistance, especially to safeguard it from corruption.

The Protecting Our Common Environment group suggested WANGO offer input into the ten-year review of the Rio Summit in 2002. The group identified the critical importance of water, and the possibility of water as a source of conflict. Water should be seen as a human right. Leadership training for NGOs was seen as vital, whether to withstand the pressures of commercial interests upon NGOs or to assist elected officials who respect the environment to find alternatives in the process of development. The group stressed a consistent representation of the South in U.N. processes and the importance of South-South cooperation.

The Human Rights, Democracy and Global Governance group recommended that WANGO take the lead in education on human rights. Much of the world's population does not know what their human rights are or how to implement them. The group also suggested that WANGO create an index of good governance. It was noted that government is by a small group over the whole population, but governance, which starts with oneself, is something in which everyone can participate. Transparency and accountability of governments was also stressed.

The Protecting the Vulnerable group stated that the category of vulnerable includes not only children, but also the elderly and the physically challenged. War-torn areas also have refugees who are exceedingly vulnerable. In terms of working together to implement the ideas in the Declaration, it was recommended that WANGO act as a facilitator among the spectrum of NGOs to assist in networking. Younger NGOs need to learn from older NGOs, and vice versa. Regional collaboration is particularly important.

The Meeting the Special Needs of Africa group recommended several points: that NGOs in cooperation with governments ensure that every child receives a basic education; that delivery of health care must reach the intended beneficiaries; that African countries introduce major languages into their respective curricula (French, English and Portuguese); that NGOs educate civil society as to their basic rights and empower them to bring good governance to African states; that debts that African countries owe should be forgiven; and finally, that the U.N. Security Council be restructured so that an African state could be given a veto power.

The Strengthening the United Nations group said the United Nations must reach out to NGOs in all communities and give them more input and participation. It should be clear how U.N. funds are allocated since how much goes to administration was at issue. NGOs should have more power, the group said, for they are the backbone and grassroots of the United Nations. There should be more representation from both the youth and the elderly. They noted the United Nations needs to be a leader by example: more action and less words. It should recognize and award exceptional programs. The Security Council should be restructured with the Third World given more voice.

Closing Statements

Amb. Dr. Clovis Maksoud, Executive Director, Center for the Global South, observed that it is important to realize that not whatever is legal is necessarily legitimate, and in some instances, what is legitimate is not necessarily legal. Civil society, as the repository of legitimacy, must ensure that legitimacy is a matter of dynamic consent to governments - this is because many governments, under the pretense of being custodians of sovereignty, practice human rights violations in a systematic way. He argued that we must rectify the North-South equation, which is a matter of shame and a challenge for the 21st century. We must deepen our sense of commitment to internationalism in order to allow sovereignty to become a legacy of human liberation rather than a shield and pretext to dehumanize human relationships. He added, "The United States, as now the only superpower, must be deterred so that [it] rediscovers its own values, so that its values are no longer a negation of some of its policies."

Ms. Maria Figueroa Küpçü, a member of the Board of Directors of the International Development Conference, noted that there is understandable skepticism about the Millennium Declaration, but the dangers of not trying to achieve its goals are too great a risk; together, we can succeed. She said the Declaration could have gone further to include how governments will help parents, grandparents and the extended family - all of which is so critical toward nurturing young people toward their full potential. NGOs can best show how these ideas can become reality by modeling change in their own organizations and expecting high standards of behavior from those who represent NGOs. NGOs should serve as role models to others. She said they have a "unique ability to reach into communities, to get closer to the people than any government agency could because we can change attitudes, persuade friends [and] encourage them." She urged that NGOs become the training ground for tomorrow's government and business leaders, adding, "Only when there is cross-pollination of these sectors will the values that we think are important in the NGO sphere become internalized in the policies of society and the business practices of our corporations." She stressed that NGOs not remain isolated but learn to speak the language of their partners.

In closing the conference, Dr. N'Dow once again proclaimed that WANGO is an idea whose time has come, and will become the premier global network of civil society in nations large and small, and the premier world body for training in human leadership. Dr. Kwak, in concluding remarks, stressed that NGOs should avoid the dangers and temptations that have toppled individuals and governments - selfishness and moral failure. Rather they must maintain the attitude of service to others. Participants were invited to attend future IIFWP and WANGO educational programs in their respective nations.

Dr. Barry is Senior Research Fellow, Summit Council for World Peace.

 Download entire page and pages related to it in ZIP format
Table of Contents
Tparents Home