A History of the Unification Church in Canada: 1965-1991
by Franco Famularo
Chapter Five - The Porter Era [Part 4]
A Married Couple leads the Church -- Rev. Moon's Fourth Visit to Canada -- Three Areas of Activity: Outreach, Ideological, Financial -- Increasing Opposition and the View of Outsiders -- Canada at the Crossroads Speaking Tour -- A New Phase
E. "Canada at the Crossroads" Speaking Tour
At a meeting held in New York on December 14, 1981, Porter spoke with Rev. Moon about the best way to implant the Unificationist message in Canada. Rev. Moon suggested to conduct a nationwide speaking tour and said that, in a sense, Canada was on a course which was ten years behind his in the United States. Rev. Moon suggested to Porter that he should follow a similar pattern of conducting speaking tours in Canada as Rev. Moon had followed in the United States.86 Since Rev. Moon had conducted 7, 21, 32, and 8 city tours of the United States in the mid-1970s, it was decided that a similar pattern would be followed in Canada and accordingly a tour of seven Canadian cities was planned.
Porter, who had been in Canada almost five years by then, explained that the tour's purpose was to present the Unificationist view of Canada's future and awaken people to the impact of future changes of the country.87 It was also hoped that the tour would help to improve the church's image in Canada and truly launch a national level movement. Porter later noted the following in an interview with the Unification News, a church publication:
When I came here, in a sense there was a mission in Vancouver, there was a mission in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec City but really the movement wasn't nationwide at all. After I had been here quite a short time, I consolidated the movement in the areas were the major population is - Toronto and Montreal. This was a temporary move to reform the movement and then branch out again.88
The tour provided an opportunity to branch out across the country and also gave the public a chance to hear the Unificationist view. Porter commented:
It was an opportunity for people to know us and to know what we stand for. They have not been informed. There is a very irresponsible media. They could see our sincerity and hear the speech which is basically Divine Principle the whole way as it applies to Canadian history.89
Porter also noted that the source of misinformation about the Unification Church in Canada came from elsewhere. He wrote:
To put this all in perspective in the worst month we had 251 negative articles nationwide against our activities: I only wished that we had one member for each article in Canada! The criticism was that we were deceptive, hiding people by changing their names, keeping members from their families, were being unclear about what we stood for, and there was the question as to whether we were religious at all. The major cause of the persecution was not due to Canadian activities, but due to those in Oakland, California where many people from Montreal joined. I would add that the above description in no way reflected the Canadian church which was forthright and clear about its identity and often encouraged members to visit their families.90
The cross-country speaking tour called "Canada at the Crossroads - The New Millennium" began in February 1982 when a twenty member team traveled to British Columbia. The first speech was held in Vancouver on March 18, 1982. During the following months the message was proclaimed in the following cities: Edmonton, Alberta in April, Halifax, Nova Scotia in August, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in September, Ottawa, and Montreal in October and November, respectively. The final stop of the tour was Toronto on March 15, 1983.
In preparation for the speaking engagement members visited people door to door, and a public relations team, which consisted of David Decker and Caren Folk, contacted public officials. In each city efforts were made to conduct seminars on the teachings of the Unification Church as well as hold presentations of a film entitled The New Brainwashers which was produced with the assistance of several friendly scholars to expose the dangers of "deprogramming."
In each city the program began with an audio-visual presentation, "The Road of Challenge," which featured the noble men and women of Canadian history. According to Barbara Christie-Peat Unificationists "wanted people to feel that theirs was a history they could truly be proud of."91 The audio visual presentation led into Rev. Porter's message, "Canada at the Crossroads," which was meant to foster inter-religious and inter-cultural understanding and to challenge people to live those concepts.92 In the concluding remarks of his speech Porter said:
Our crossroads today as individuals, families, provinces and an nation is the choice between isolationism and self-seeking living, or living for the benefit of the whole; whether to join forces of humanism or go in the direction of God and spirituality; and finally whether to consider the transformation we are going through, as the beginning of the new millennium and fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy, or simply a renaissance of science and technology.93
The speech concluded with a quote of Rev. Moon's and an invitation to the audience to pray and consider what had been said throughout the hour long speech. The response of the audience was generally polite, but the tour was not without its difficulties.
First stop was the western city of Vancouver. Although they might have had the best of intentions, some members of the public did not view the presence of the Unificationists very favorably. Not only were the media and members of "anti-cult" organization trying to disrupt Unificationist activities, but representatives of Canadian immigration as well. On the morning of the speaking engagement, Canadian Immigration authorities launched a raid of the Unificationist dwelling looking for illegal aliens. They had probably been advised by a detractor of the Unification Church that there were some illegal aliens among the Canadian Unificationists. The immigration officials found no members to be illegally in Canada.94
Later that day the meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and attracted between 200 and 300 people. Although most came to listen, a good number were there only to disrupt and actively tried to shout down the speaker. Indeed, the "anti-cultists" had organized themselves to apparently expose the Unification Church's supposed "mind-control" techniques. When Porter referred to the "invisible mind" of man in his speech, one member of the audience shouted, "Well, you're not getting mine." Another hollered, "Tell us about the mind-control your church practices."95 The reactions of some members of the public, some of whom were parents of members who disapproved of their children's association with the church, were the result of several years of negative publicity. The media generally took a very sympathetic view to the opposition's perspective and provided generous space in their pages. Since the first meeting encountered such disorder Unificationists learned their lessons and decided to improve their organization for the following meeting.96
The next stop was Edmonton, Alberta, where the members followed a similar pattern of street presence and house-to-house visitations in suburbia. On the Public Relations front the New Brainwashers film was shown to Edmonton's Chief of Police and to a group of 25 members of the Rotary Club of Edmonton, where Porter also spoke. The media was even more prepared than in Vancouver and announced in an article "Moonies are Coming."97 Sensing that a similar situation as Vancouver could take place (the media reported that an "anti-cult" demonstration was planned)98, it was decided that a security team would be formed and those attending would be screened prior to entering the meeting, which was held at the Hotel McDonald on April 21, 1982. The strategy appeared to work as Porter's speech to about 150 people was well received. Even the media's tone had changed somewhat reporting that "both the speech and the protest were low key."99 One reporter, Stephen Weatherbe, provided an even more favorable account saying that the Unificationists were "pushing God, family, love and anti-Communism."100 Weatherbe noted:
In fact the public's obsession with Moonie recruitment methods may well have obscured for many just how traditional and right-wing is much of the message which Mr. Porter came to preach. Even the communal lifestyle which characterizes so many cults is one which the Moonies are abandoning, he says, in favor of the conventional nuclear family and community church.101
Indeed the public's attitude was beginning to slowly change, but there was still an uphill battle before the members on the cross-country tour.
Although the tour was somewhat interrupted due to the participation of many Canadian members in a mass wedding held on July 1, 1982, the campaign continued in Halifax in mid-July. Again the arrival of the Unificationists was greeted with some hostility as articles in the press declared that "The Moonies are here."102 In Halifax, the Better Business Bureau (BBB) decided to issue a press release stating that members of the Unification Church were selling tickets for a meeting without a license and warned that the aim of the church was "global religious takeover."103 As it turned out for the BBB, they had jumped to conclusions before looking into the facts and eventually offered a public apology for their action.104
The meeting, held at the Chateau Halifax on August 5, was attended by about 100 people.105 The atmosphere was sympathetic and also attracted the interest of several scholars, one of them was the chairman of the religion department at Dalhousie University, Tom Sinclair-Faulkner. His views on new religions were revealed in an article that appeared prior to Porter's speech. He said:
... there is little to fear from the Unification Church and that it is gradually becoming a more mainstream organization ... [it is] on the way to becoming another church on the corner.106
In the same article Porter, was quoted as saying that "all new religions go through initial credibility problems because people are suspicious of new things."107
If the tone was somewhat tolerant in Halifax, it was not the case in Winnipeg, Manitoba. As the members began their campaigning in the mid-western city they were greeted by front page headlines stating: "Moonies Coming to Town."108 Led by Gary Beal, a leader of the Manitoba Cult Awareness Center, opposition took the form of threatening the hotel management into canceling the church's rental of the Westin Hotel, a number of interviews with sympathetic members of the local press, and warnings of a violent demonstration on the evening of the speech held on September 16.109
The hotel's management almost agreed to cancel the church's reservation only to be met by a signed receipt which guaranteed no cancellation was possible. Despite the negative publicity and the 50 demonstrators who protested the meeting, about 300 people attended Porter's speech. A reporter for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, who was expecting a dramatic demonstration said, "... give the day to the Moonies. We were left with egg on our faces."110 Nevertheless, some members of the press did not concur with the opposition the church was receiving and in one editorial the following view was expressed:
We've heard the arguments against the Moonies - that they recruit deceitfully and use "brainwashing" techniques to turn their young recruits into virtual slaves of Sun Myung Moon. And we've heard local anti-cultist Gary Beal's not so veiled hint of a violent demonstration ... We're not so sure where the mindless devotion of cultists ends and the selfless devotion of established churchgoers begins. But we know a threat to freedom of speech, assembly and religion when we hear it. The Moonies are armed only with ideas. Any person with a philosophy stronger than those ideas surely need have no fear...111
5. Ottawa and Montreal
The final two stops of 1982 were Ottawa, where a meeting was held at the Chateau Laurier Hotel on October 13, and in Montreal on November 24, where the meeting was held at the Chateau Champlain. Both campaigns were rather quiet when compared to Vancouver, Winnipeg and Halifax. In Ottawa, the nations capital and a rather sleepy bureaucratic town, it was expected that only about 100 people would attend, but that the same number attended in Montreal was somewhat of a disappointment for the Unificationists.112 Media attention in both French and English Montreal dailies focused on 30 protesters, led by Mike Kropveld of the Hillel Cult Project, who demonstrated on the evening of the meeting.113 Most of the people who attended the meeting in Montreal, however, were parents of members who were rather sympathetic to their children's involvement. The largest meeting yet was to wait till early 1983.
After holding a fundraising drive that lasted till the end of the year, the campaign for the Toronto meeting began in earnest with the new year of 1983. Of course, Toronto was a city where Unificationists had worked for a long time, unlike most of the previous cities on the tour which had little Unificationist presence. As the campaigns ended in each city one or two members were left behind to do follow-up. Thus, Jim Buchanan remained in Vancouver with his wife Makiko, Rosemary Guy and Shirley Navid in Edmonton, Charles Casavant in Winnipeg, Trevor Brown in Halifax, Jim Demartini in Ottawa and Helene Dumont in Montreal.
For the Toronto campaign a new approach was conceived. A professional agency was hired which recommended a new strategy to attract the people of Toronto. The literature package was redesigned as all brochures and posters advertised that "Moon's Man in Canada" would speak at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto on "Canada at the Crossroads" on March 15, 1983. The poster, as well as all brochures and literature, featured a photo of Porter in the foreground with a large fade out shot of Rev. Moon in the background. Rather than conducting the campaign through street presence and door-to-door visits as had been the case in previous cities, the members conducted a mass mail out, took out large ads in Toronto's newspapers and distributed invitation packages in select neighborhoods of Toronto. Instead of approaching the public directly, members spent most of their time raising the funds to finance the professional advertising campaign.114
According to one member's report, the meeting attended by 400 people was the best of the entire tour. The audience listened attentively as Porter spoke and even the media was rather respectful.115 One reporter quoted church literature which said that the campaign was to "herald a new phase in the church's life and activities."116 Although there were some protests organized by Ian Haworth's, Council on Mind Abuse, very little notice was taken.
Toronto marked the final stop in the cross country tour. According to church literature the message was one of national importance which offered a historical perspective on Canada's situation and announced a new beginning in the Unification Church's activities in Canada:
This presentation is the beginning of a new phase in the life and activity of the Church in Canada. Our basic structure and organization has been formed, facilities have been established and community social assistance programs begun. Now, begins the real work of dialogue with others who are equally concerned about the future of this country.117
Indeed, it represented a new beginning and Porter intended to do more campaigns. In his words, "the one just concluded was just the formation stage of the speaking tour."118 According to a Toronto Star report, Robert Duffy, who had recently returned from Ireland and was then serving as public relations director, said that "the church was hoping to increase its present active membership of 1,000 to 10,000 over the next few years."119 At the time neither Porter nor Duffy could foresee the changes which would take place a few months later.
F. A New Phase
As mentioned, in the midst of the cross-country tour a mass wedding took place which was attended by a significant number of Canadian members. On July 1, 1982, Rev. and Mrs. Moon officiated at the mass wedding of 2075 couples at Madison Square Garden in New York City. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, in preparation for the mass wedding Rev. Moon conducted a number of engagement ceremonies that Canadian Unificationists had participated in. Thus, on that warm day in July about 50 members of the Canadian Unification Church participated in a wedding that not only attracted world-wide attention in the media, but also signaled a turning point for the church in the Western World. The church which had been until then mostly composed of single, unattached individuals would soon be transformed into a movement of married couples with children. This would alter the mode of operations within the church quite significantly. The Unification Church would become a movement that consisted mostly of families.
Martin and Marion Porter had been in Canada for six years by 1983. During their time in Canada the church had been transformed. Externally through several real-estate acquisitions the church conveyed a more substantial image. The image of the church in 1983 had been seriously affected by persistent negative reporting in the news media. This presented quite a challenge, but was not one that the church was then prepared to spend enormous energies to change.
Internally the membership had grown. Of course some had grown older and had become more experienced. Not unlike other organizations however, there was some dissatisfaction with the leadership provided by the Porter's. For example, because some saw Porter as being somewhat exclusive and limited in his approach, they decided to look for greener pastures and emigrated to the United States where there were more opportunities. Compared to the state of the Canadian church at the time, the movement in the United States was much more developed while the Canadian church was still in a pioneer stage.
For others, disagreements with the then existing leadership led to the re-enactment of a similar pattern which was found in each period of the Unification Church's development in Canada. They communicated with Rev. Moon or his representatives to express their views concerning the state of the church and its leadership.120
Although it was not clear whether such reports influenced Rev. Moon in deciding to introduce new leadership for the Canadian church, everyone was taken by surprise when news reached Canada in late August 1983 that the Porter's term had come to an end. Although Porter at the time had made plans for a new speaking tour of Canada and was also in the process of expanding the deer breeding operation through the acquisition of more land, he was caught by surprise when informed that he would switch roles with someone he had known since his early days as a member of the Unification Church of Italy. Porter learned that he would then become responsible for managing a ship building and sea food processing operation in Bayou La Batre, Alabama and that his successor in Canada would be a German by the name of Paul Werner.
1. "Testimonies and Letters." March 29, 1966. NAF. May 1966. p. 24.
2. "Moon's Man in Canada." Today's World. May 1983. p. 31. (Also see NAF. April 1966. p. 15 and May 1966. p. 24.)
3. "Letter from Martin Porter." NAF. May 1966. p. 24. (Letter dated March 29, 1966.)
4. A History of the Unification Church in Italy. Unpublished. 1989.
5. Chronology. June 1977.
6. Ibid. July 1977.
7. Interview with Mark Laurin. February 20, 1994.
8. Chronology. 1977.
9. Martin Porter. Testimony. Unpublished. 1994. (hereafter Porter Testimony)
10. According to Unification Theology all things of creation were corrupted due to the fall of man. Reverend Moon thus created Holy Salt in order to purify the environment and all things. Therefore, Unificationists use "Holy Salt to purify things such as food, clothing and buildings before use. It is made according to a special ritual. (Salt is, of course, used for purification purposes in other religious traditions.) For a detailed explanation of Holy Salt in Unification Tradition please see The Tradition. New York: HSA-UWC. 1985. pp. 47-57.
11. Interview with Mubina Jaffer Lagare. October, 1986.
12. Unofficial transcript of Reverend Moon's speech. September 17, 1977. Toronto, Canada. (hereafter Rev. Moon. September 17, 1977.)
14. Interview with Stoyan Tadin. March 1993.
15. Rev. Moon. September 17, 1977.
17. Interview with Choon Keun and Won Chil Chang. February 25, 1994.
18. Porter Testimony.
19. Chronology. September 1977.
20. Porter Testimony.
21. Porter Testimony.
22. Brochure. Symposium - A New Focus for Men and Women Today. Sponsored by the Unification Church of Canada. Faculty of Education Building. May 7, 1980.
23. One World (later) Today. Newsletter of HSA-UWC Canada. June, August and September 1978.
24. "Bussing seniors to shop." Bloor West Villager. May 1979. p. A20.
25. "Shopping bus linked with Unification Church." Bloor West Villager. June 1979. p. 37.
26. "Happy Children's Toy Library." Brochure. January 1981.
27. Interview with Stoyan and Lilly Tadin. February 25, 1994.
28. Denys Morgan. "Confrontation with cults - Moonies lose date for lunch." The Globe and Mail. October 20, 1979. p. 14.
29. Brochure. "Unification Theology: Orthodox or Heresy." Speaker Dietrich Seidel. January 30, 1979.
30. Chris Poupart. "Moonies CARP about ads." The Varsity. November 12, 1980. p. 1.
31. "An Open Letter From CARP to the University Community." Advertisement in The Newspaper. November 1980.
32. Interview with Stoyan Tadin. February 25, 1994.
33. Alan Wilding. Report of Celebrate Canada Festival. 1978
34. "Winter freezes out unity rally." The Toronto Star. December 29, 1977.
35. Martin Porter. "Rally for Canadian Unity." Text of Speech delivered December 28, 1977.
36. "Corner of the counter-spy veil is lifted as Sun, editor and publisher face court." Globe and Mail. June 13, 1978.
37. Canadian Unity and Freedom Federation. Form letter sent to Members of Provincial and Federal Parliament. June 2, 1978.
38. List of people that sent proclamations, letters of appreciation and telegrams to CUFF. June 1978.
39. Reports by Daniel Stringer, Alan Wilding and Anne Ranniste. June 1978.
40. "4,000 sing and dance for unity." The Toronto Star. June 25, 1978.
41. Interview with Daniel Stringer. March 5, 1994.
42. Porter Testimony.
43. Interview with Wesley Ramage. February 23, 1994.
44. Sun Myung Moon. Our Pride. June 5, 1977. p. 14.
45. Sun Myung Moon. Core of Unification. October 9, 1977. p. 12.
46. Michael Prentice. "A question of charity and how money's used." The Ottawa Citizen. January 24, 1979. p. 61.
47. Federal Tax Return of The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC). 1978. and Financial Statements of HSA-UWC for 1983 prepared by Peter J. Newhouse. C.A.
48. Deeds & Titles of properties purchased by the Unification Church.
49. Porter Testimony.
50. Peter Moon. "Moonies selling elk antlers as aphrodisiacs to Asians." Globe and Mail. January 20, 1984. p.3.
51. Mark Hebert. Prospectus on Clearstone Breeding Farms. January 1991.
52. Ibid. p. 2.
53. See for example Cheryl Cohen. "Elk Sold to Moonie leader." Edmonton Journal. September 2, 1983.
54. See for example. New Religions and Mental Health: Understanding the Issues. Edited by Herbert Richardson. New York and Toronto. The Edwin Mellen Press. 1980. A Time for Consideration: A Scholarly Appraisal of the Unification Church. Edited by M. Darrol Bryant and Herbert Richardson. The Edwin Mellen Press. 1978. David Bromley and Anson Shupe. Strange Gods: The Great American Cult Scare. Boston: Beacon Press. 1981. Eileen Barker. The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell. 1984. Saul Levine and N.E. Salter. "Youth and Contemporary Religious Movements: Psychosocial Findings." Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal. Vol 21, 1976. Frederick Sontag. Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Nashville: Abingdon. 1977.
55. A Time for Consideration: A Scholarly Appraisal of the Unification Church. Edited by M. Darrol Bryant and Herbert Richardson. The Edwin Mellen Press. 1978. pp. v-vi.
56. Beginning in the late 1970s groups such as the following provided the public with biased information about the newer religions such as the Unification Church. Their members presented themselves as experts on so called "cults" disseminated literature and often did lecture circuits in schools, universities, and other public settings throughout Canada. Some of the Canadian organizations were: "The Council on Mind Abuse" (COMA) based in Toronto, "The Hillel Cult Information Center" later renamed "Info Cult" in Montreal, "Positive Education Against Cults" (PEAC) in Vancouver, "Citizens Against Mind Control" (CAMC) in Saskatchewan, "Alberta Cult Education", "Manitoba Cult Awareness Center." Most of these organizations were formed by ex-members of new religions, or parents who disagreed with their children's association with the new religions.
57. See for example. Bev Christensen. The Citizen. (Prince George, B.C.) June 12, 1980. (She wrote: "But people fear the Moonies. Their fear is based on the cult's methods of recruiting members which separates converts from all contact with their families and demands total commitment of all their time, money and energy to the church.)
58. For an exhaustive study of this issue please consult: John T. Biermans. The Odyssey of New Religions Today. Lewiston/Queenston: The Edwin Mellen Press. 1988. (In a footnote Biermans relates that during the late 1970s several hundred Unification Church members a year were subjected to "deprogrammings." During the 1980s the number decreased dramatically. In 1985 the total number of cases reported was less than one dozen.) p. 279.
59. Frank K. Flinn. "Ted Patrick, Father of Deprogramming." The Facts on Deprogramming. February 1982. Unpublished Manuscript. p. 56.
60. Irving Hexam. R.F. Currie. J.B. Townsend. "New Religious Movements." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Volume III. Min-Sta. Second Edition. Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers. 1988. p. 1479.
61. The Catholic Register Toronto. March 22, 1977. (Dudgeon recounts how Ted Patrick abducted her from Bethany House in Orangeville, Ontario. Ms. Dudgeon was imprisoned in Patricks basement in San Diego. and was told by Patrick that "she could be hypnotized by a single word of the Mass."
For an account of two Greek-American women from Denver, Colorado being abducted by "deprogrammer," Ted Patrick, and forced to abandon their independent lifestyle (they had left home in their early twenties because they did not want to follow a traditional Greek lifestyle imposed by their parents) see Roberta J. Moore. "Terror in Denver." Liberty. March/April 1975. p. 8-13.
62. Frank. K. Flinn. "Ted Patrick, Father of Deprogramming." in The Facts on Deprogramming. February 1982. Unpublished manuscript. p. 47.
63. As explained to the author in 1983.
64. See for example. " 'Moonie' ex-aide cites deprogram attempt by Cafik." Ottawa Citizen. January 10, 1978. "Former Aide Claims Cafik Held Him Against His Will" The Daily Mercury. (Guelph, Ontario). January 18, 1978. "Did Cafik Imprison Moonie?" Ottawa Today. January 19, 1978. "Cafik accused of trying to deprogram ex-aide Bierman from Moon Church. Winnipeg Free Press. January 18, 1978. p. 19. "Moonie Bierman says M.P. Cafik kept him a prisoner. Vancouver Sun. January 18, 1978. p. A23.
65. See for example The Calgary Sun. December 1981. Also The Calgary Herald. February 27, 1982 and March 15, 1982.
66. Elizabeth Wyckoff. Statement of Events. October 3, 1980.
67. Shelley Fralic. "'Moonie' rejects deprogramming." (Elizabeth Wyckoff...right to her own beliefs. The Vancouver Sun. October 11, 1980. p. E7.
68. Statement of Barbara Christie. April 19, 1982.
69. Martin Porter. "Unification Church offers a $10,000 Reward." October 1980.
70. Television Program on CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) about the Unification Church. "The Fifth Estate." October 21, 1980.)
71. Josh Freed. Moonwebs: Journey into the Mind of a Cult. Toronto. Dorset Publishing. 1980. Virgo Paperback edition 1981. (It might be interesting to some that the Montreal Star which carried Freed's articles soon folded as a Montreal daily in 1979. Also since Virgo Press, the publisher's of Moonwebs paperback edition, were soon declared bankrupt Freed lost his royalties. Kathryn Leger. "Freed's book brings fame - no fortune." The Globe and Mail October 26, 1981. See also: "Publishers go belly up: Author loses royalties." The Province. (Vancouver B.C.). October 25, 1981.
72. Ibid. Forward.
73. Ibid. pp. 212-214.
74. See for example. "The Unification Church in Canada: A Growing Concern." Today Magazine. May 10, 1980. p. 10. Also "The Moonies Fall on Hard Times in Canada." Reader's Digest. August 1982. p. 162. (This sidebar alongside a condensed version of Freed's book claimed that Unificationists were not doing well in Canada as elsewhere due to anti-"Moonie" feeling across the country because of bad publicity. According to Mike Kropveld, who was then director of an anti-cult information center in Montreal, "Moonies" were keeping a low profile.)
75. Private Members Bill in Ontario Legislature. An Act to monitor and regulate the activities of Cults and Mind Development Groups. (Short title "The Cult Regulation Act." Mr. Sweeney. 4th Session, 31st Legislature, Ontario 29 Elizabeth II, 1980.
76. Jonathan Manthorpe. "Tories get into mind bending." The Toronto Star. March 29, 1978. (See also "Mind-expansionists may face public probe."Toronto Star. February 26, 1978.)
77. Study of Mind Development Groups, Sects and Cults: A report to the Ontario Government. (hereafter Dan Hill Report). Special Advisor Daniel G. Hill. The Queens Printer. June 1980. pp. 588-589.
78. Tom Hill. "Witch hunt feared: "Moonies" oppose probe. Ottawa Citizen. April 15, 1978.
79. Dan Hill Report. pp. 6-7.
80. Joanne Blain. "Forcible deprogramming of cultists hit. The Calgary Herald. October 3, 1981. p. B2.
81. New Religions and Mental Health: Understanding the Issues. New York & Toronto: Edwin Mellen Press. 1980.
82. A Statement by Reverend Martin Porter. Press Conference held in Toronto Unification Church. November 6, 1979.
83. See transcript of a meeting of Vancouver City Council. April 15, 1980. 8:15 p.m. where Mayor Jack Volrich and several alderman agreed to refuse a peddler's licence to Jorg Heller, a Unification Church member, on account of his religious affiliation.
84. "Moonies not with soap firm." The Oshawa Times. January 31, 1983. See also "Proctor and Gamble Inc. cult involvement denied." The Star Phoenix. (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) June 18, 1980.
85. Pat McMahon. "Tories' tacky tactics mean Grits will return to power. Calgary Herald. April 22, 1983.
86. "Interview with Reverend Porter, director of the Canadian Church." Unification News. August 1983. p. 9.
87. Barbara Christie Peat. "Reflections on a Cross-Country Tour." Today's World. May 1983. p. 32.
88. Unification News. August 1983. p. 9.
90. Porter Testimony.
91. Today's World. May 1983. p. 32.
93. Martin Porter. "Canada at the Crossroads: The New Millennium." Official text of speech given in each city. p. 16.
94. Eugene Curtin. "There's a rumbling upstairs in the attic." Unification News. July 1983. p. 6. (hereafter Curtin)
95. "Moonie critics vocal at Hyatt Hotel rally. The Province. March 19, 1982. (See also "Moonies attract heckler anxious parents." The Vancouver Sun. March 19, 1982.)
96. Curtin. p. 6.
97. Peter Stockland. "The Moonies are Coming." The Edmonton Sun. April 13, 1982. p. 15.
98. "Anti-cult protest planned." Edmonton Journal. April 20, 1982.
99. Bob Beal. "Low-keyed Moonies pitch countered by quiet protest: See? No brainwashing here, Moonie tells city gathering." Edmonton Journal. April 22, 1982. p. E2.
100. Stephen Weatherbe. "The Moonies go respectable." Alberta Report. May 3, 1982. p. 42.
102. Free Press. (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia) July 21, 1982.
104. Shirley Connor. "Unification Church gets BBB apology." The Mail Star. (Halifax, Nova Scotia). July 28, 1982. (See also "BBB says 'sorry' to Moonies over ticket rap." The Daily News. July 28, 1982.)
105. Curtin. p. 7.
106. Shirley Connor. "Unification Church suffers from 'credibility problem.'" The Mail Star. August 2, 1982.
108. Maureen Scurfield. "Moonies Coming To Town." The Winnipeg Sun. August 27, 1982. p. 1.
109. David O'Brien. "Demonstrators may attack Moonies, anti-cultist warns." Winnipeg Free Press. August 28, 1982. (Gary Beal was quoted as saying, "I can't promise it'll be nice," ..."I won't be violent myself, but what those parents do is their business.")
110. Curtin. p. 7.
111. Editorial "A dismaying fury over Moonies." The Winnipeg Sun. August 31, 1982.
112. Curtin. p. 7.
113. Jules Beliveau. "Une manifestation anti-sectes denonce les <<moonistes>> reunis a Montreal." La Presse. 25 Novembre 1982. Also "Meeting of Moonies draws 30 protesters." The Montreal Gazette. November 25, 1982.
114. Marion Porter. "Interview." Unification News. August 1983. p. 9.
115. Curtin. p. 7.
116. Michael McAteer. "Canada's man in the Moonies." The Toronto Star. March 19, 1983. p. G6. (hereafter McAteer).
117. Unification Church Brochure. "Moon's Man In Canada." 1983.
118. Unification News. August 1983. p. 9.
120. Interview with Choon Keun and Won Chil Chang. February 25, 1994.
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