By Dr. Sang Hun Lee
Chapter 1 - Theory of the Original Human Nature (part 2)
Section D - The Original Human Nature Viewed from the Unification Principle
In Section C, we criticized the Existentialists' views of the Original Human Nature (views of existence). Here in section D, we are going to explain en bloc and systematically the Original Nature viewed from the Unification Principle, which we referred to in bits and pieces in the previous section.
1. Being With Divine Image
a. Sung Sang and Hyung Sang (Perfectness)
Sung Sang is Subject, Hyung Sang Object
According to the Unification Principle, man was originally a being modeled after God's Image (Genesis 1:27). That is to say, he contains the polarities of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang which are similar to God's polarities.
This aspect is shown in the duality of the spirit man (Sung Sang) and the physical man (Hyung Sang), and the relations between the mind (Sung Sang) and body (Hyung Sang), or the spirit mind (Sung Sang) and the physical mind (Hyung Sang). These parts have a subject and object relationship between them and maintain their motion through the give-and-take action.
Most important in the give-and-take action is that the parts maintain their respective positions. For instance, the subject should maintain the position of subject, and the object that of object, or the action will be destroyed by losing its order.
Fig. 19 The Give-and-Take Action between Sung Sang and
Hyung Sang in the Human Being
Then, what are their right positions? The human mind is the union created by the give-and-take action between the spirit mind of the spirit man and the physical mind of the physical man. The spirit mind is the Sung Sang part of mind and the location of the value-seeking desires which seek out the values of truth, goodness and beauty in things and try to accomplish man's own individuality and love using these values. The spirit mind is also the location of the value realizing desires which seek to realize the values of truth, goodness and beauty in man's life in order to receive the love of God. On the other hand, the physical mind is the part of the mind where the instincts for maintaining the individual and tribe are controlled and where man's interest in his daily life or sex are located.
The ideal function of the mind is to head in the direction of God with the spirit mind as subject and the physical mind as object. The mind carrying out such a give-and-take action normally, is called the Original Mind. This Original Mind always emphasizes love and regards the whole of life (life of food, clothing, and shelter) as a means for realizing love. If an issue conflicts with the purpose of love, it is left until later on. True love is concerned with the whole and takes care of it so that love benefits the whole. If the human mind continues to operate always emphasizing love, no contradiction or strife will occur in our lives, and we will be able to live a happy life at any time.
The Unification Principle regards this aspect of man as the first of the Divine Images. When the spirit mind as subject and the physical mind as object continue to perform give-and-take action with each other maintaining their respective positions, this is called perfection. The first aim of education is for man's mind to reach such perfection.
However, since man is fallen, having left God, the normal relationship with the spirit mind as subject and the physical mind as object is apt in reality to become abnormal (though the two minds often idealistically try to maintain the normal relation). It is also ideal if the spirit mind and physical mind are always resonant with each other, understanding clearly what happens within each of them. Because of the fall of man, however, this resonance often becomes weak or hardly takes place and man can not understand what he is or should be.
b. Positivity and Negativity (multiplication and norm)
The Combination of Man and Woman is the Complete Whole
"So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them." (Genesis 1:27) That is, God has both the natures of masculinity and femininity (positivity and negativity) while mankind is divided into men with positivity, and women with negativity.
This shows that no person can be a complete whole (one) as long as he or she is single because both man and woman are only parts of wholes. They are made such that they become complete only by the union which occurs through their mutual give-and-take.
The union of man and woman, through the give-and-take action is indeed an event of cosmic scale. God created this large cosmos, but the creation will be completed through the creation of man, when he reaches perfection as the lord of the whole cosmos.
As stated in "Epistemology", man is composed of substantial body holding both the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang of all things in the cosmos. According to this meaning, man is a great being, equal not to other individual beings but to the whole cosmos itself. Moreover, since man is the subject, and the cosmos his object, he is originally higher in value than the whole cosmos.
Since both positivity and negativity are in man there are also positivity and negativity in the cosmos. Man is the encapsulation of all the positive and subjective things in the cosmos; he corresponds to totality of the positive parts in the cosmos and is their representative. On the other hand, woman is the encapsulation of all the negative and objective things in the cosmos and represents them.
Accordingly, the union of man and woman means the completion of the subject of the cosmos and is the completion of the creation of the cosmos. Originally the union of man and woman had such a cosmic significance.
To our regret, however, because of the fall of man the union of man and woman now has no relation to the creation of the cosmos, and thus the creation remains unfinished. From this stems the necessity of re-creation (the providence of restoration).
This cosmic significance applies not only to the original union of man and woman, but the birth of the children and the formation of the family as the results of this union also have very important significance, for it constitutes the establishment of the Four Position Foundation among family members. This is the base for all love and order; only if the relationships among family members are smooth, will there appear a world full of love and joy without any contradictions or oppositions. This can happen by applying the family relation to the society and nation.
Therefore, we regard the complete union of man and woman and the family Four Position Foundation, that is, the harmony of positivity and negativity, as the second of the Divine Images. The Logos is concerned with this harmony of positivity and negativity; therefore a norm is necessary in their harmony. This norm becomes the second goal of education in the Principle.
c. Individual Image in God
Individuality Comes from God
Another important Divine Image within man's Original Nature is his individuality which comes from the Individual Image in God.
People are apt to think that God is only a universal being and nothing more. Actually, however, God has limitless Individual Images as well as the Universal Image. These Individual Images are another important characteristic of God.
The concrete expressions of God's Individual Images are the individuality of each man. Every man has his own peculiar nature; no man is ever the same as any other man. That is, the individuality of a human being, who is the object of God, is similar to an Individual Image of God, who is subject. By this similarity, God finds a unique joy in each particular man and thus each man's individuality must be respected fully since it is an expression of God's nature. This is also the reason the individuality of an artist or critic must be expressed fully in the creation or appreciation of a work of art. Totalitarianism or communism is apt to ignore or standardize man's individuality, but to do so is to debase the Divine Character.
2. Being In Position
a. Being with Object Position
Man Needs a Subject
According to the Unification Principle, man was created as the substantial object of God and is the being created to give pleasure to God.
Since this is the purpose of God's creation, every man has the desire to express his value toward beings of a broader scope. This is the value-realizing desire, and if viewed from the perspective of purpose, it is the purpose for the whole.
Man must be an object before he is a subject, for he will not be able to become a subject if he does not serve God as an object in order to receive love (life) from God. When love is poured out by the subject, then for the first time man finds his life worth living, and he acquires the power to love as a subject himself, as well as the knowledge of how to love.
Therefore, a wise man thinks it worthless to live only for his private purposes without any connection by Heart to broader level beings. He eagerly seeks after the true subject to whom he can devote himself; he does not want to live for himself but wants to dedicate himself to the greater whole and express his value by doing so.
Originally every man wants to find such an absolute subject, but since the fall, he has not known his true subject nor how to return to that subject (God). Man suffers because he does not know what his Original Nature is seeking for, nor for whom he should live. This is the motive which brings a man to believe in religion
Man often gives up his own life with pleasure for justice, for his nation, country or mankind. justice is the practice of love, and thus love is more than life. It is beyond the individual man, and so is universal and belongs to God. However, since man often does not know the true subject whom he should serve, he is apt to think wrongly that the ruler of his land is the true subject. One wrong example is the case of communists who loyally serve their dictator and party. At any rate, it can be seen that even those who deny religion have a strong desire for religious devotion. From this fact we can see that man is originally the object of God and that his Original Nature is to give up even his life for the subject.
Therefore, we must know the true subject we have lost, and then return to it.
b. Being with Subject Position-Dominion
Things Exist for Man's Pleasure
As stated above, man is the object to God. At the same time, however, he is, through union with God, the subject of all things and should be the physical representative of God himself. As man exists for the pleasure of God, so things exist for the pleasure of man, who is their subject.
Therefore, things that express their beauty fully for man will feel sorrowful if man does not accept them with joy, just as a child who eagerly tries to express his value will feel sorrowful if his parents are indifferent to him. Behind things, for instance behind a tree, there lies the creative Heart of God who has made the tree. So if the Original Nature of man has been developed, and if his mind is open to God, he will surely feel pleasure in seeing the tree.
Man is the Subject of Love to Govern Things
Also, the world of things is harmonized and completed only by receiving the dominion of love from man who is the leading spirit in the world.
If the original dominion of man truly comes about, the disharmony of things and even the phenomenon of the "stronger preying upon the weaker" will disappear. The Bible also has a prophecy concerning this.
The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the lion and the fading together, and a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall feed; their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The sucking child shall play over the hate of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the adder's den. They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. (Isaiah 11:6-9)
If man is perfect in love (Heart) and guides all things by love, the strife between men will disappear, because it is useless. However in actuality, man, who should govern all things, left his position as subject and carries out bloody warfare. As a result, "We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now;" (Romans 8:22) "For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God." (Romans 8:19)
Therefore, man must restore his true subject position over things, that is, take dominion over them by regaining his object position to God. [Note: In this world there is a phenomenon of animals preying on one another which is regarded as strife. For example, some plants become food for animals, and in the sea many small fish are preyed upon by large fish. But these phenomepa can not be called struggle. Rather they are a phenomena of service in the order of the world. All created beings are connected bodies with dual purposes. This means that there are things of lower value and of higher value in the created world. Lower value beings can sometimes fulfill their purpose for the whole by becoming food for higher value beings. This is not strife but a synthesis of value or increase of it. In other words, this is a kind of service to the whole.]
c. Being with an Intermediary Position
Man Is the Center of Cosmic Harmony
Lastly, this created world consists of not only the natural world known to us by the five physical senses (visible world) but also the so-called spirit world known to us by the five spiritual senses (invisible world). According to the Bible and the Unification Principle, man enters this invisible world after his physical body is destroyed and will live there forever. This invisible world is sometimes called "heaven" and the visible world "cosmos"; and the combination of the two are called the "heavenly cosmos."
Man exists in both worlds and is the only being with such an existence. Man's physical body is created to be the composite of the material world and to have dominion over this world. On the other hand, man's spirit body is created to be the composite of the invisible world and to have dominion over it. Therefore if the spirit man and physical man communicate with each other centering on God, the two worlds will become resonant, and communicate and harmonize with each other. Thus man is said to be the mediator between heaven and the cosmos and the center of harmony between the two.
If communication and union between the two worlds are carried out, the spirit men already in the spirit world will be able to help the men in this world and join in the life on this earth. When give-and-take action between the two worlds occurs fully through human beings with physical bodies, a world full of freedom, peace and joy will appear.
3. Being With Divine Image
a. Being with Heart
Heart and Love
According to the Unification Principle, man is originally a being with Heart who can inherit God's Heart as God's child.
In Unification Thought, Heart is the concept which means the internal cause of love, and love is the concept meaning what is expressed as a result or what comes from the Heart. Heart lies deep in man's mind; when it moves out, it becomes love. The outward expression of the Heart, which is the internal cause, or more correctly speaking, the force of the feeling (emotion) which begins to move together with will toward the aim established by Heart-this is love.
That is, Heart is the starting point of love. Without Heart, love can not appear. And love is the source of life; namely love makes man live. However rich a man may be materially, without love, his life will be lost and the individual, home and community will fall apart. Love is the source of life and makes man what he should be. Without Heart and the love issuing from it, we can not discover the satisfactory solution for any problem.
b. Being of Logos (Norm)
The World Consists of Logos
God is also a being of Logos, and this world was created according to the Logos. Logos consists of reason and law (See "Ontology"). Therefore, nature can not exist without Logos (reason and law).
God is the subject of all Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and the Sung Sang of God contains the Logos which is the union of reason and law, centering on Heart (Purpose) which thus forms the Inner Developing Quadruple Base. The expressions of God's Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity are decided by this Logos. Through it order and law appear in nature.
Accordingly, man, who has taken on the image of God, is also originally a being of Logos or norm. Like God, man is also originally a free being. As soon as he leaves the Logos, however, oppositions and contradictions appear which give man discomfort and create chaos. Therefore, man should act freely while remaining true to the Logos. If we accurately systematize the Logos of God, we shall find the right thought suitable to the Original Human Nature, and if we act following the right thought, we shall live correctly.
c. Being with Creativity
Finally, God is the creator of the whole cosmos, and man, similar to God, is given creative power (Creativity). That is to say, man finds life worth living only when he lives a creative life. According to the Unification Thought, when man was created, he was given the same creative power as God's power that created the cosmos. This is Creativity. By this Creativity many inventions and discoveries have been accomplished in order to develop human culture. Moreover, man is always designing, planning, producing, constructing and appreciating new things in his daily life; he carries out creative activities every day. [Note: Strictly speaking, even plants and animals can be said to have creativity. The growth of plants and multiplication of animals may be said to be the creation of new cells or new life. Some birds have the ability to make nests; bees make hives and honeycombs. But these abilities are not the same as the Creativity of man. The Creativity given to man is a reasonable Creativity of Heart, while the ability for growth of plants is autonomy and that of animals is nothing but instinct.]
Section E - The Original Nature and Second Nature
(i) The Difference between the Original Nature and the Second Nature
We have so far explained the Original Human Nature viewed from the Unification Principle. Based on this Original Nature, man develops various second natures according to changes of circumstance. The Original Nature is the true nature held naturally by man, and it does not change in any age or circumstance. On the other hand, the second nature though based on the Original Nature changes to meet the various changes of time and place; this can also be called the acquired nature.
We think that while the second nature always changes, the Original Nature itself never changes. For instance, the style of dress which a man likes at a certain time will change at a later time, but the Original Nature which causes man to appreciate beauty will never change throughout eternity. This is the Original Nature viewed from the Unification Principle.
(ii) The Communists' View of the Original Nature
On the other hand, communists regard love, humanism beyond class, and the desire for freedom as changeable matters produced by circumstances or the social system. They do not think that man has a consistent, unchangeable Original Nature which goes beyond time or age. They do not think that family love (the love of parents, couple, and children) which we regard as the most basic among the Original Human Natures, and the ethical love held among friends and neighbors are unchangeable; they think that such love is an historical product formed under the feudalistic or capitalistic systems and that love is based on class feeling. Therefore, to love one's family and neighbors regardless of class is regarded as betrayal, giving an advantage to the enemy class. It is more important to love the communist party and its leader then to love one's family; there can be no humanism beyond class. One should always strictly distinguish between friends and enemies from the class standpoint. If one pushes the class strife to such a point and changes the living circumstances and system (production relation) fundamentally, then the character of man will also change and a new human being, unique in history-the communist human being-will be formed through the revolution.
Is this view of the communists true?
The liberalization movements brought about among the young people in the Soviet Union after the death of Stalin are powerful counter-evidence to this view, as is the strong resistance against various attempts to disorganize the family system in the country.
It can not be possible that the young people in the Soviet Union, who were born after the establishment of communist power and educated in the communistic method, perfectly separated from capitalistic societies, could have been "polluted" by the remains of the bourgeois attitudes (liberalism, humanism beyond class, thought of family love). Yet liberal movements and assertions of humanism incompatible with communism appear even in the Soviet Union, especially in the field of literature. Do these tendencies not show that the desire for freedom and humanism is based on the unchangeable Original Human Nature?
Communists regard love toward parents, brothers and sisters, or children as the dregs of feudalism or as a product of circumstances. Thus they separate very young children from their families, and educate them under special circumstances (e.g. in North Korea). They are trying to create a new type of human being who will love only the communist party and dictators, and who will have no interest in family love.
No matter how the circumstances or system may be changed, or what education is given, it is impossible to change the Original Nature of man who has the Divine Image, the Divine Character and a certain position. The Original Human Nature may be oppressed for a time, but it has the strength necessary to reject the pressure, and sooner or later it will revive, because it comes from God. We who believe in God believe firmly in this.
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