By Dr. Sang Hun Lee
Chapter II - Ontology Based on the Unification Principle (Part 3)
Section D - The Being Image of Existing Beings (part 1)
Now let me explain the being image of the existing beings. It is obvious that all beings would have some image since they are created by the Original Being (God) who has the Original Image. But what can we call the existing beings with such images? In the Unification Principle, all the existing beings are called individual truth bodies and "connected bodies." Since the Original Image is cause and the created beings are result, they must be dealt with in relation to the Original Image. This is why every existing being is called an individual truth body and a connected body. The former concept (individual truth body) is derived from the formation of the Inner Quadruple Base and the latter concept is derived from the formation of the Outer Quadruple Base of the Original Being.
1. Individual Truth Body
Since every existing being, according to the Law of Resemblance, is created reflecting the Divine Image (in the narrow sense), each being is identity-maintaining in the same aspects as the Divine Image. As already mentioned, there are both Individual and Universal Images in the Divine Image. The Universal Image means the two relative polarities of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity while the Individual Image means the individual, and proper characteristics of each being. The differences among animals, plants and minerals originate from the differences among the Individual Images. The various animals named horse, cow, dog, hen and the like are due to the different Individual Images in the world of the Original Image. Let me explain more concretely about Universal and Individual Images.
a. Universal Image
(i) Sung Sang and Hyung Sang
All existing beings have both the aspects of function and character and the aspects of matter (hyle), structure and shape. Of these, function and character are invisible, while matter, structure and shape are visible. The invisible part is referred to as Sung Sang, whereas the visible part is referred to as Hyung Sang. For example, in a mineral, the physicochemical nature of the inorganic matter is the Sung Sang, while the structure of the molecules and atoms, the material shape created by the inorganic matter, corresponds to the Hyung Sang; in a plant, its life and unique characteristics are its Sung Sang, whereas its cells, systems structure, and shape are its Hyung Sang; in an animal, its life, instinct, and the function of its cells, tissues, and organs are the Sung Sang, while the shape made up by those cells, tissues (muscle, skeletal, nerve, and skin), and organs is the Hyung Sang; finally for man, life, the physical mind, the spirit man, spiritual mind, and the specific functions of cells, in addition to the kind of Sung Sang found in animals, correspond to his Sung Sang, whereas his physical body composed of the cells, tissues and organs are equal to his Hyung Sang.
As the above explanation points out, the Sung Sang of a plant consists of both function and life plus the Sung Sang of a mineral; the Sung Sang of an animal is composed of instinct in addition to the Sung Sang of a plant; and man's Sung Sang consists of the spiritual mind in addition to the Sung Sang of an animal. There is a similar progression in the Hyung Sang
aspect. In other words, a plant's Hyung Sang is composed of structure and shape in addition to a mineral's Hyung Sang; an animal's Hyung Sang consists of organs and nerves in addition to a plant's Hyung Sang; and finally man's Hyung Sang is composed of the spirit body and the spiritual organs in addition to an animal's Hyung Sang. This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. We can understand through this diagram that the stepped increase of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in both quality and quantity is proportional to the level of the existing being. Thus it can be seen that the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang of man, who is in the highest position, contain all the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang elements of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms. All this is a systematization of the following part of the Principle of Creation:
Likewise, the things of all creation, though they may vary in dimension, have an invisible internal character which corresponds to the mind; since this is the cause and subject, it manipulates the external form which corresponds to the human body. This relationship between mind and body enables the individual creation to maintain its existence as a being with a certain purpose. Animals have an aspect which corresponds to the human mind; since this is the subject and cause which directs toward a certain purpose, the animal body is able to live according to the purpose of its individual being. A plant also has an internal character which enables it to maintain its organic function.
Men can be united because the mind is a common factor in every person. Similarly, positive and negative ions are united to form a certain material because within each ion there are aspects of both internal character and external form which tend to unite, thus forming a molecule. Again, when an electron revolves around a proton to form an atom, it is because each contains an aspect of "character" that directs it toward the purpose of constructing an atom. (Ibid., p. 23)
Before creating man, God made all things in the image and likeness of man's character and form. Therefore, man is the encapsulation of all things. (Ibid., p. 44)
Fig. 8. Stepped Structure of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in Existing Beings
Therefore, man contains the structure, elements and essential qualities of animals ... plant ... and mineral. (Ibid., pp. 44-45) [Note: We should, however, take note that in spite of this, it is not true to say that man was created based on the attributes of animals. From the evolutionary standpoint, man appears to have been made by the addition of some more attributes to those of animals. But in creation, on the contrary, ". . . God made all things in the image and likeness of man's character and form." (Ibid., p. 44) In creating man from dust, God in no way made him by making an animal, rather man was originally created as man. Even though my previous explanation made it appear as if upper level beings were made by adding some new factors to lower level beings, (See "Individual Image") I only used this method of expression to help the reader understand the concept more easily.]
At this point it should be made clear that there are three kinds of concepts of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. That is to say, when man is regarded as the composite of the whole universe, when he is considered as a simple possessor of mind and body, and when he is considered to be a being of duality, both physical and spiritual. Each time the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang are regarded as quite different.
In the first view of man, which sees him as the composite of the whole universe, his Sung Sang refers to the composite of the mineral Sung Sang (physicochemical nature), the life factor in plants, the instinct of animals, and the human mind (including the spiritual mind); and his Hyung Sang refers to the composite of all the outer elements of atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and nerves.
In the second view of man, which sees him as a simple possessor of mind and body, the mind and life alone are his Sung Sang, and the physicochemical quality, for example, with the other outer elements belongs to his Hyung Sang.
In the third view, which sees man as a being of duality, both spiritual and physical, the spirit man is the Sung Sang and all the physical aspects belong to his Hyung Sang. Accordingly, in this case, the spiritual mind is Sung Sang, whereas the physical mind belongs to Hyung Sang.
Now let me make one more remark on the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang of spirit men. The spirit man is connected with flesh, but when we look at it alone, it belongs to the spiritual world. Since the spirit man can not live alone on earth, it is hard to regard it as a man in the ordinary meaning of the word; however, it is surely a man when it reaches the spirit world. (For a long time the soul has been considered only as mind which is separated from the physical body, but the Unification Principle considers the soul to be the spirit man.) This spirit man itself is an individual truth body with both Sung Sang and Hyung Sang attributes. The spirit mind is its Sung Sang, whereas the spirit body is its Hyung Sang. Consequently, including this one, there are four kinds of concepts of the human Sung Sang and Hyung Sang.
There are also different concepts of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in all other existing beings. We can know this because the existing beings in higher positions are considered as composites of the factors of the beings in the lower positions. Plants contain minerals, animals contain the elements of plants and minerals, and man contains the elements of animals, plants, and minerals. Exactly speaking, the higher position contains the Sung Sang aspects and Hyung Sang aspects of all the beings of the lower positions. Generally, however, people understand that the existing being is at a definite stage of evolution, and thus has distinctive qualities, namely the specific differences. In Unification Thought the specific difference of the Sung Sang of the lower position is included in the total Hyung Sang of the upper position. Accordingly, Sung Sang and Hyung Sang are dealt with not as a stepped structure, but as a horizontal structure. This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 9.
(ii) Positivity and Negativity
Here positivity and negativity, the other relative elements of the Universal Image, are discussed. As mentioned in the section on the Original Image, positivity and negativity are attributes of the Original Being, and they are direct attributes of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. This means that both Sung Sang and Hyung Sang have positivity and negativity as their attributes. For example, there are positive and negative aspects to the mind, the Sung Sang. Positive, active and creative will; bright, delightful and joyful feelings; and bright, clear and abundant concepts and good memory within the intellect, all belong to the positive aspect of the Sung Sang. Negative, passive, and conservative will; melancholy, unpleasant and sad feelings; and stupid, ambiguous, bewildered and absent-minded intellect belong to the negative aspect of the Sung Sang.
Fig. 9. Structure of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in Existing Beings
Likewise, in the body, the Hyung Sang of man, there are both positive and negative aspects. Standing, jutting or convex parts of the body such as the bridge of the nose, the arm, leg, finger, toe, and masculine genitals are the positive aspect, while the sunken or concave parts of the body such as the nostril, ear hole, feminine genitals, etc. are its negative aspect.
Generally, there is not a clear view of the difference between man and masculinity, and between woman and femininity, but in Unification Thought these differences are clearly distinguished. There are two kinds of human beings, man and woman, and both kinds of people have both the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity, which are the attributes of the Original Being. The difference between man and woman is that man has some additional positive elements unique to man that woman does not have. Likewise, woman has some additional negative elements unique to woman that man does not have. The other positive and negative elements of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang mentioned above are all common to both man and woman. However, it is more essential that both men and women are human beings with Sung Sang and Hyung Sang than that they are sexual beings with masculinity or femininity. It should not be overlooked that positivity and negativity are the attributes of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang. According to the Principle of Creation,
What is the relationship between the dual characteristics of character and form and the dual characteristics of positivity and negativity? Fundamentally, God's essential character and His essential form assume a reciprocal relationship with His 11 essential positivity" and "essential negativity." Therefore, God's essential positivity and essential negativity are the attributes of His essential character and essential form. (Ibid., p. 24)
Positivity and negativity can be considered as the attributes of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in both the static, identity-maintaining dimension, and also the dynamic, developing dimension.
As already mentioned in the section on the structure of the Original Image, the Sung Sang and the Hyung Sang maintain their identity by forming Static, Identity-Maintaining Quadruples centering on Heart, and they develop and multiply through the Dynamic and Developing Quadruples centering on Purpose. How do positivity and negativity function as the attributes of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in the formation of the Static, Identity-Maintaining Quadruple? As already mentioned, the Static, Identity Maintaining Quadruple is the one which maintains the self-identity; it is the quadruple which allows the individual truth body to remain the same over a period of time. For example, congenitally each man has a unique and particular mind, body and individuality. These are his unique aspects of positivity and negativity within his mind and body. The reciprocal relationship of each one's inherent elements is unchangeable throughout his whole existence. The mind and body of A can never change to the mind and body of B. This shows that positivity and negativity play the role of the attributes of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in the formation of the Identity-Maintaining Quadruple. Therefore, precisely speaking, the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang can not form the Quadruple Base by themselves. The base is necessarily regulated by positivity and negativity, too. In this way the individual truth body with an Individual Image of the Original Being is formed. In this term, "Individual truth body", individual refers to the Individual Image and truth refers to the Universal Image (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity).
Next, what is the Dynamic Quadruple Base? The Dynamic Quadruple indicates development and multiplication. It is the Quadruple Base which deals with the changing, multiplying, and developing aspects of the structure, beyond the identity-maintaining aspect of the individual truth body. For example, man comes under environmental influences a posteriori. First, when a man comes into being, he is influenced by his family centering on his parents. His family may be of a positive or negative character. In addition, there are positive and negative aspects in the various environmental factors, such as food, weather, time (morning, noon, night, etc.), seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter), places of residence (seashore, country, mountains, stream or riverside), education, ideas, etc. Moreover, all of these environmental elements are changing incessantly. It is obvious that these changing elements also influence the mind and body over a period of time; therefore it is natural that all of these environmental factors act upon the formation of the Quadruple Base by the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang (Developing Quadruple Base centering on Purpose). From this standpoint, man, as an individual truth body, is not a vague abstract being of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, but a concrete being regulated by many positive and negative factors, both a priori and a posteriori, and he is the united being of his Identity-Maintaining (Static) and Developing Quadruple Bases. This occurs because the Original Being itself contains these united attributes.
(iii) Logos and the Harmony between Positivity and Negativity
As already mentioned, the Logos is a new creation of the Inner Developing Quadruple Base of the Original Image, and because it is multiplied through the give-and-take action between the Inner Sung Sang and Inner Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity of course affect its creation. Positive and negative aspects necessarily exist and remain harmonious in order for the Logos to create and have dominion over the whole creation.
According to the Gospel of John, Chapter 1:1-5, God created the whole creation with the Word, Logos. This Word contains the principle of positivity and negativity. If the Original Being had only Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, there would have been no creation and much less development. This is because development is a kind of movement, and there can not even be a visible (created) being without movement. For the creation to exist, motion is necessary, and not only circular movement in space, but also developing movement in time. Developing movement means incessant change toward a definite goal while the self-identity is maintained. Development can not occur apart from such a change. Growth and the multiplication of children are nothing other than change. However, as all the elements in the Original Image are united and harmonious, there should be unity and harmony in the change. Such unity and harmony in change are incomplete if there is only give-and-take action between the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang and not between positivity and negativity. An adequate alternation of changes and pauses in development only appears by means of the action of positivity and negativity. For example, when a symphony is played in a concert, each of the wind and string instruments, some of which are more positive and some more negative, harmonizes completely with the positivity and negativity of the ensemble; and thus with time the full harmony develops, involving the long and short notes and the high and low tunes, including the harmony of the peculiar sounds of the instruments. The phrases unite into passages, and the passages unify into movements. Such harmony and unity in the passage of time occur only because of the principle of positivity and negativity. Therefore, it goes without saying that the more distinguished the symphonies are, the better the harmony and unity between positivity and negativity. We can understand therefore, that the principle of positivity and negativity acts during development.
The universe was not only created by the Logos, but has been also developing for billions of years, and will develop forever by the Logos. This means that there have been give-and-take actions between positivity and negativity, as well as between Sung Sang and Hyung Sang; consequently, the Logos for development was already contained in the Logos for creation. Since the Logos was regulated by the give-and-take action between positivity and negativity in the development of the universe, Logos has brought diverse changes. The record of creating the universe in six days can be regarded as creation by means of the principle of positivity and negativity. So the development of the universe has been the continuation of a grand symphony that fulfilled ideal beauty and was made with countless instruments called Sung Sang and Hyung Sang (each having positive and negative aspects). The symphony continues today. The harmony and unity of the symphony have been lost only in the history of man, due to the fall.
Finally, let me touch on the give-and-take action between positivity and negativity. The give-and-take action between positivity and negativity, as that between Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, has both static and dynamic aspects. Static give-and-take action means the horizontal and simultaneous giving and taking which occur regardless of time, such as conjugal harmony, a mixed chorus, the harmony between males and females in the animal kingdom, the harmony between mountains and plains, sea and land, dark and light colors, activity and inactivity and the like. Accordingly, in these give-and-take actions, the positive elements (husband, man, male, mountain, land, activity, etc.) and the negative elements (wife, woman, female, plain, sea, inactivity, etc.) co-exist in creation and perform the give-and-take action. This is shown in Figure 10.
Fig. 10 Static Give-and-Take Action between Positivity and Negativity
The beauty of all the static artistic works such as painting, architecture, sculpture and the like is the outcome of the harmony between the static give-and-take actions of positivity and negativity.
The dynamic give-and-take action refers to the vertical and successive harmony of positivity and negativity, while the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang bring about change and multiplication through the formation of the Developing Quadruple Bases. To say that the Quadruple Base develops means that one aspect changes to another. The change itself is initiated by Logos, but the actual changing aspects appear through the give-and-take of positivity and negativity such as high key to low key, strong sound to weak one, melancholy after delight, night after day, fortune and misfortune, positive birth (son) and negative birth (daughter) and the like. The germination of a plant in spring is the positive aspect of its Sung Sang and the descent of the sap into the roots in autumn is the negative aspect of its Sung Sang. Thus, the dynamic (developing) give-and-take action between positivity and negativity is vertical and successive. This is shown in Figure 11. The beauty of all the dynamic artistic works such as dance, novels, poems, music and the like is the outcome of vertical harmony between positivity and negativity.
Fig. 11 Developing Give-and-Take Action between Positivity and Negativity
In the development of the Quadruple Base, the three aspects of Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, Logos, and positivity and negativity act unitedly. If one of these aspects does not participate, there is no development; they are thus called the "Three Motives of Development."
(iv) Subject and Object
I have touched upon the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity, all of which are attributes of the Original Being. The relationships between Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and between positivity and negativity are those of subject and object. Sung Sang is the subject of the Hyung Sang, and the Hyung Sang is the object of the Sung Sang; while the positivity is the subject of the negativity, and -negativity is the object of the positivity. The Principle of Creation says,
What then is the relationship between internal character and external form? The invisible internal character is the cause and is in the subjective position, while the visible external form is the result of the former and stands in an objective position to it. (Ibid., p. 22)
Accordingly, positivity and negativity also have a reciprocal relationship existing between internal and external.... subject and object. (Ibid., p. 24)
From the fact that the relationships between Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity are those of subject and object, and from the fact that every individual truth body has the Universal Image (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity), we can conclude that every existing being contains both subject and object elements. Namely, every individual thing necessarily has the two elements within it, and one is subject and the other is object. The subject takes the center or upper position, whereas the object revolves around or is below the subject. Because the positions of subject and object are not the same, the world of existing beings is ordered.
The Inner Quadruple Base is the outcome of the give-and-take action between the Inner Sung Sang and Inner Hyung Sang within the Original Sung Sang (subject). Thus within the concepts of subject and object, there is also this other level of an inner subject part and inner object part within the subject.
The Outer Quadruple Base is the outcome of the give-and-take action between the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang in the Original Image. In other words, it is the Quadruple Base formed through the give-and-take action between the subject and object. The relationship between positivity and negativity in the Original Image is like this also.
The fact that the Original Image has such a structure means clearly that the individual truth bodies, existing beings, have the same structure. To put it concretely, the Inner Quadruple Base can be formed by the inner subject and inner object elements, and the Outer Quadruple Base is composed of outer subject and outer object elements.
What is the Inner Quadruple Base in the individual truth body, then? It consists of both the Inner Identity-Maintaining (Static) and Developing (Dynamic) Quadruples.
I previously made it clear that the individual truth body, like the Original Image, is the union of the Identity-Maintaining and Developing Quadruple Bases. To say that the individual truth body takes after the Original Image means that it takes after the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity of the Original Being. Additionally, the Quadruple Base of the individual truth body takes after the Inner Quadruple Base of the Original Image, because every existing being is created to have outer relationships with other beings. In other words every existing being has both the inner and outer relationships, and in order to exist, the formation of both the Inner and Outer Quadruple Bases is indispensable. In other words, everything should have both existing structures. Taking the example of man for instance, the human being, as an individual truth body, has both inner and outer relationships. The relationships between mind and body, spirit man and physical man, and the spiritual mind and physical mind are the inner relationships; and the relationships between family members, teachers and students, are the outer relationships. For flowers there is the inner give-and-take between the stamen and pistil (self-pollinating only), and the outer give-and-take with bees and butterflies. Thus the individual truth body taking after the Original Image has both inner and outer aspects, namely all existing beings perform both inner and outer give-and-take actions simultaneously. [Note: When an individual truth body performs outer give-and-take actions with other beings by forming an Outer Quadruple Base, the individual truth body is called a connected body. (This will be clarified later.)]
Through this, it is possible for us to understand that the Quadruple Bases (Identity Maintaining and Developing) that compose the individual truth body are equivalent to the Inner Quadruple Bases of the Original Image. Accordingly, we can easily understand that an Outer Quadruple Base which is formed between one individual and another individual, such as the familial Quadruple Base, would correspond to the Outer Quadruple Base of the Original Image. Consequently, one individual is an individual truth body taking after the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang (or positivity and negativity) of the Original Being not only from the sense of being a mere creature, but also from the sense of taking after the Inner Quadruple Base of the Original Image. (See Figure 12) In short, every individual truth body not only has a subject and object relationship with other individual truth bodies, but also contains the two elements of subject and object within itself. These two elements necessarily form an Inner Quadruple Base by give-and-take action. Thus every individual is actually an individual truth body.
Fig. 12 Individual Truth Body, and the Inner and Outer Quadruple Bases
(v) Paired Elements and Opposition
The fact that every existing being has two elements internally and also has relationships with other beings externally means clearly that the concept of the individual is relative. That is, an individual not only has relative elements within itself but is also relative to other individuals externally. Furthermore, every individual exists as a partial being which composes the whole, and at the same time as a whole being composed of some partial elements. Thus an individual truth body can also be seen as a relative body. For example, a molecule is an individual truth body both as a whole composed of atoms and also as a partial element that adds to the composition of cells as a whole. Therefore we call the subject and object elements of the individual truth body paired elements. In other words, every existing being can be regarded as the union of the paired elements of subject and object.
Since give-and-take action occurs centering on Heart, Purpose or a definite cause, both the subject and object center on one common element. It has often been overlooked that there is always a common purpose, motive or cause whenever two individuals have any relationship. According to the Unification Principle, every give-and-take action has a center. This center is called God. Here God sometimes means the God with personality in the broad sense, but in the narrow sense, "God" also means the Heart, Purpose, aim, cause, motive and so on which concern God's creation. The fact that this sort of common element is always the center of give-and-take can be easily understood from the case of the give-and-take between men. Strictly speaking, the union of man and woman is made centering on the purpose of creation which causes them to unite, even though they may appear to unite centering on their own realistic purposes. The common purpose behind the give-and-take between governments and people is to improve economic life. In the give-and-take action within nature other than man (animals, plants, minerals, etc.), however, the common factors between things are not so obvious. But according to the Unification Principle, there is, and should be a common factor acting as their center. For example, even though it is matter of course that the male and female sexes in the animal kingdom breed because of their instinct, in the broad sense, this action originated from the purpose of creation to preserve individuals through multiplication. The give-and-take between butterflies or bees and flowers through exchanging nectar and pollen also has its origin in the common purpose of keeping individuals preserved. The stamen and pistil have give-and-take based on the common purpose of bearing fruit. Sodium and chlorine combine into salt because the valence requirement of each is equal. This equality of the valence requirement originates in the purpose of the creation of God, and since the Na ion is a positive ion and the C1 ion is a negative ion, they tend to unite with each other. So from this standpoint they may be seen to have a common purpose. Thus all existing beings (subject and object) perform the give-and-take action centering on common factors. If there were opposite or contrary purposes or elements rather than common ones, there would be repulsion or exclusion rather than give-and-take action. This is why two positive electrodes exclude or repel one another. Even in human society, any difference of interest, purpose or duties, etc. between two persons causes them sometimes to be disharmonious or to quarrel. Through the above-mentioned, it may have been clarified that paired elements (subject and object) perform give-and-take action centering on a common purpose or element. This concept of paired elements is of great importance in investigating the communist view of matter.
As is widely known, communist philosophy, which is based on dialectical materialism, regards all things (existing beings) as objective beings or as consisting of matter alone. According to this theory, all things consist of two elements, but these two elements are not relative (paired) but rather are contradictory. Communism contends that all things change, move and develop because the two contradictory elements in an existing being struggle against each other. They maintain that these two elements need each other on the one hand and repel each other on the other. This need they call unity and this repulsion they call struggle. Communist philosophers compare the relationship between any two elements to that between the ruling and ruled classes. In other words, the classes require each other on the one hand and repel each other on the other. They consider struggle to be more essential than mutual necessity in the class society. just as a society is overthrown and replaced by a new one through struggle, so the relationship between the two elements within anything is one more of struggle than of mutual necessity, and the movement, change and development of material are accomplished through this struggle. They call these two elements opposition or contradiction.
In the communist view, things are not a union of relative (paired) elements (individual truth bodies), but rather the unity of contradiction and opposition. Now let me investigate this in detail.
Communist dialectics, which were first advocated by Marx, had their origin in Hegel's philosophy. Therefore, its concepts of "opposition" and "contradiction" are the same as Hegel's. According to Hegel's "Theory of Essence" in his Logic, contradiction means not simple opposition, but sharp opposition completely denying or repelling the other party. Neither a common purpose nor common elements can be found between oppositions. Thus, his contradiction is thorough negation.
These concepts have been used by the communists including Marx. Accordingly, when they call every existing being a "unity of opposition" or "unity of contradiction", they recognize no common purpose between the two elements. Engels, in his book Dialectics of Nature, cited many natural phenomena within the realms of dynamics, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics and astronomy as being the unity of opposition or of contradiction. However, after a close examination of his theory, it becomes obvious that he made a big mistake, because he applied the concept of opposition or contradiction to all correlative or unified phenomena and mere differences among natural things.
Dialectics of Nature reads,
... so-called objective dialectics rules over all nature, ... every chemical process involves attraction and repulsion.... meanwhile all the progress to man has been made through the incessant struggle between heredity and adaptation. (Dialectics of Nature, lwanami Library Vol. 11, p. 56)
He regards all relative phenomena as opposite and contradictory. For example, he says,
When a magnet is cut in two, its neutral middle part becomes polarized maintaining the relationship of the previous poles; moreover, if an earth worm is cut in two, it maintains the in-taking organ at the positive pole, and makes a new negative pole, having the anus on the negative pole, but the previous negative (anus) changes to the positive pole, and becomes the in-taking organ (mouth), and a new excretory organ (new negative pole) is made in the cut part. (Ibid., p. 66)
He says that the same opposition or contradiction as before is maintained after cutting a magnet or an earthworm in half. Is this true? The positive and negative poles in a magnet do not exist for the purpose of repulsion or exclusion but rather for unity, just as the mouth and the anus of an earthworm do not exist to repel each other but rather have the common purpose of keeping an individual alive through taking in nutrition and excreting digested food. He says, "In chemistry, analysis is the main form of study, but without its opposite pole (synthesis) chemistry is nothing." (Ibid., p. 78) This means that the methods of analysis and synthesis are opposites and thus chemistry can not exist without the opposition or contradiction of analysis and synthesis. But are analysis and synthesis contradictory? No, they are never contradictory. They are only relative methods being used together in order to acquire perfect knowledge. In other words they are not in a repelling and negative relation, but rather in a coordinated and affirmative one.
Engels applies the concepts of opposition and contradiction even to the field of mathematics as follows:
Subtraction (a-b) can be expressed as addition (-b+a),
... all the fixed distinctions of the kinds of calculations cease to exist and all can be expressed as the opposite forms. The power can be expressed as the power root
and the power root can be expressed as the power
... This means that addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and power and power root are contradictory opposite ways of calculation. This is far from the truth; however, all these are relative ways to attain the exact calculation. They are not contradictory ways of calculation, repelling each other.
He says also,
Nowadays, if physiology does not regard death as the essential moment of life, it is not referred to as science. The denial of life is contained as an essential element within life itself. Thus life must necessarily be considered in relation to death (which is the inevitable result of life); that is, as part of the form of an embryo. This is the dialectical understanding concerning life. (Ibid., p. 208)
In other words, "Life is maintained by the denial of death, its opposite party." But this is also a mere mechanical interpretation forcibly adjusted to the dialectical category. Let me give an example. If a man has lived for seventy years, and if Engel's saying is true, then these seventy years should be the length of the opposition between life and death. However, how can we possibly find the confrontation of death with life? It is impossible to find death existing; that is, death can not be found among the brains, the nerves, frame, internal organs, and the five organs of sense, but rather there is a perpetual replacement of cells and blood corpuscles. It is inaccurate to look upon the replacement of cells as a relationship of opposition.
In the first place, if the relationship between life and death is regarded as opposition, this relationship of opposition should be considered within the same unit of life (the same individual body). But the whole human body and a cell are quite different units. Although a cell may die, the human body continues to live. And even this death of a cell, exactly speaking, is not really death, but rather the cell's replacement by new cells, as will be mentioned later.
In the example of man, the fetus grows up and becomes a newborn child, separated from its mother. After birth, the child then grows up without negating the life of the parents at all. On the contrary, most children help their parents. Man does not die due to being negated by the fetus, but rather dies of old age or due to illness.
In the second place, human life is maintained not by an opposition with death, but by the harmonious give-and-take between cells, tissues, organs, and the like; that is to say, by the formation of various levels of Quadruple Bases. While life is maintained, there is no connotation of death. Each of the cells disappears and new ones appear just as when clothes wear out, and are replaced by new ones. Like this, in human life, old cells are replaced by new ones.
Through the above explanation, it may have been clarified that while communists look upon every existing being as in opposition, actual existing beings have neither opposition nor contradictions. This explanation dealt with the universal images of the individual truth bodies. In conclusion, each existing being thus takes after the Universal Image of the Original Being and necessarily has relative (paired) elements rather than opposition within it, thus forming the existence structure named the Quadruple Base.
b. Individual Image
As already mentioned, all the existing beings take after the Original Universal Image by having the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity, and they take after an Original Individual Image by having individual characteristics. Namely, every existing being has its own peculiarity, and this is its Individual Image.
According to Genesis, Chapter 1, God created man in His own image after He created the whole universe in six days. In the Divine Principle it says,
That is, man is God's substantial object with His dual characteristics manifested as "direct image," while all things of the universe are the substantial objects of God with His dual characteristics manifested as "indirect image" (symbol) (Divine Principle, p. 26)
The universe consists of countless such individual truth incarnations, mutually related in good order, from the creature of the lowest grade to the highest, with man as the highest truth incarnation. (Ibid., p. 36)
Summarizing these statements, God's creation is a differentiated one. Taking after God, the universe shows differentiation in various aspects.
God began His creation with animals of a lower order, then created animals with a more complicated function; and finally He created man, who has the highest function. (Ibid., p. 44)
This means that all things including man have peculiar shapes, structures and functions. In creating the protozoa, fish, amphibia, the reptiles, and mammalia, the different forms, structures and functions were differentiated at each level. The same is true for plants and minerals. We know that the atomic structure and chemical qualities of each element are different. All these examples show that all the existing beings take after both the Individual and Universal Images of the Original Being. Then to which part of the Original Image does the Individual Image of the Original Being belong? And what are the concrete contents of the Individual Image? Let me touch upon this question now.
(i)The Location of the Individual Image
There are Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity in the Original Image, thus the Individual Images should be located within one of them. In other words, one of the polarities should be the location of the Individual Image, because, since an Individual Image is an image, and not character or matter (hyle), the image can not be located in the Divine Character (Divinity). Then where is it located? It is in the Inner Hyung Sang within the Original Sung Sang. I commented before that the give-and-take action between the Inner Sung Sang, namely, intellect, emotion and will, and Inner Hyung Sang, namely, principle and law, form the Inner Quadruple Base. We can not but consider that the countless Individual Images are located nowhere else but within the Inner Quadruple Base. As an Individual Image is neither only positive nor only negative, nor mere matter (hyle), nor the Universal Prime Energy, the Individual Images can not be within the positivity, negativity or the Original Hyung Sang, but must be within the Original Sung Sang. However, as the Sung Sang consists of the Inner Sung Sang, that is the part which thinks (intellect, emotion, will), and the Inner Hyung Sang, that is the part which is thought, its location is the Inner Hyung Sang. This means that in the creation of the universe, at the beginning there was an idea in the Original Image of the Original Being; then the word appeared, and finally the creation was developed. Logos (Word) comes into being centering on purpose, and that purpose is the very purpose of creation. Once the purpose is established, there should naturally follow the idea of what and how to create to fulfill that purpose. Logos appears as a concrete plan through this action. In thinking, there must be the subject part of thinking which is the intellect, emotion and will (particularly reason, which is part of the intellect), and there must be the object part of thinking or thought part which is the idea or shape,. structure and function of an actual individual that is
to be created. Let me give an example. If the Original Being intended to create a bird, He would have first thought of a bird, and then an Individual Image of the bird (representation of the bird) would have come into his mind. That is, an Individual Image would have appeared in the Inner Hyung Sang and He would have thought of how to create it. Then the principles (laws) within the Inner Hyung Sang would have been used by the reason and finally Logos, the concrete Word to create the bird, would have been formed. Through the give-and-take action between this Word with the rest of the Original Sung Sang (emotion and will) and the Original Hyung Sang (hyle), the bird would have appeared as a being (a creature). This is shown in Figure 13.
Fig. 13 Relation Between the Location of the Individual Image and Creation
(ii) The Monostratic Nature of the Individual Image
As already mentioned, every creature is a concrete individual truth body, and has both the Universal and Individual Image of the Original Image. Thus it has peculiarity as an individual being. Then what is the concrete meaning of an Individual Image? Does it mean the individual's own features which are beyond the attributes common to other individuals? Here the attributes common to others are the Universal Image. Then, is it the Individual Image which is left after the Universal Image has been abstracted from the individual truth body? Logically, it would seem that the remainder after the abstraction of the Universal Image is the Individual Image. Within logic, the distinctive features remaining after the abstraction of the Universal Image (common character) from existing beings are called specific differences. So the specific differences seem to be the Individual Images. However, as specific differences have many levels of application, the issue is not so simple. For example, an actual person, say a Korean person, has various specific differences, i.e. peculiarities. Let us trace these peculiarities.
In the first place, since he is a living organism rather than inorganic matter, he has the peculiarities (specific differences) of living things such as cells, life and multiplication.
In the second place, among living things, as he is an animal rather than a plant, he has the peculiarities of animals such as digestion, excretion, respiration, reproduction, sense, and movement as specific differences.
In the third place, as human beings belong to the sub-phylum Vertebrata, he has the peculiarities of this kind of animal such as a head, trunk, limbs, tail, nerves, circulatory system and the dioecious feature.
In the fourth place, among the classes of vertebrates, he belongs with the Mammalia rather than fish or reptiles, and hence has mammalian peculiarities such as hair, viviparity, and lactation.
In the fifth place, among the orders within the Mammalia, he belongs to the Primates, and so has primate peculiarities such as a developed cerebrum, short face, limbs with five fingers or toes, two breasts and the like. And among these Primates, he belongs to the human race, and therefore he also has human peculiarities such as reason, value criteria, language and creativity. Since he belongs to the Oriental race, he has certain peculiarities of skin and hair, and because his nationality is Korean, he has peculiarities such as a particular language, history, tradition and way of life. Finally, because he is a particular person among the Koreans, he has individual peculiarities of height, appearance, individuality, etc. Thus if we regard the remainder after excluding the Universal Image (common character) as Individual Images, according to the increase of the number of species in a particular level, the kinds of Individual Images (specific differences) can be seen to decrease proportionally. That is, if we compare the specific differences (Individual Images) with the number of species in the different levels of beings, we find that the number of species and the number of specific differences are in opposite proportion. (e.g. Man is the most specialized being. He has all the specific differences of all the other beings; however, in his level of specialization, he is the only species.) In other words, a concrete person, A, has various peculiarities (Individual Images) such as those of a living being, of an animal, of a vertebrate, of a mammal, of a Primate, of a human being, of a Korean, and of a particular individual. Is it true that the Individual Image in the Original Being before creation is such a conglomerate? According to Unification Thought the creatures God intended to create were not vague and abstract beings but actual and concrete ones. In other words, God had a mind to create each of the concrete and actual beings directly. Scripture says, "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father." (John 1:14) This passage means that the begotten son was not a vague human being, but Jesus, an actual person with peculiarities of height, appearance, character, temperament and the like. He was not a person with an Individual Image based on a polystrata of the collected characteristics of all living things. Jesus was not a man made of a "polystrata" of the lower levels, but a man of "monostratum."
In this theory there may be some who disagree because this view disregards the theory of evolution. But in reality, the Unification Principle does disregard the theory of evolution. Only from a phenomenal perspective does the process of creation seem to have evolved. That living things seem to have evolved from lower stages to higher is due to the gradual process of creation from lower to higher. Thus, even though man was created in the last stage, it does not necessarily mean that he was made by adding one more Individual Image to the features of all the minerals, plants and animals of the previous stages which had been added one after another. According to the Divine Principle, "Before creating man, God made all things in the image and likeness of man's character and form. Therefore, man is the encapsulation of all things." (Ibid., p. 44)
This quote makes it clear that, on the contrary, nature was created to take after parts of the human peculiarities; that is to resemble man's Individual Image. After all, the human Individual Image is not polystratic but rather simple and monostratic. Scholars have tried to analyze the Individual Images academically and classify them into various differences. Though this may be of academic significance, it has nothing to do with the human Individual Image in the Original Being. It is similar to all the other beings, because, although in the order of creation, the lower things were created first in the Original Image, they were preceded by the Individual Image of the higher beings. The lower beings were created taking after the parts of the Individual Images of the higher beings.
To say God created the entire universe setting up man, the highest being, as this standard, means that He created animals and plants setting up man as their standard, and He created minerals setting up animals and plants as their standard. The Individual Images of the lower beings which are formed by taking after parts of the Individual Images of the higher beings are never polystratic in nature, but are rather monostratic simplifications. Every existing being has monostratic peculiarities in relation to its shape, structure, function, elements, action and the like.
(iii) The Individualization of the Universal Image
Since an individual truth body has both Universal and Individual Images, what is the relationship between these Universal and Individual Images? Is the Individual Image within an individual separate from the Universal Image (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity)? Do the Universal and Individual Images within individuals have nothing to do with each other?
To jump to the conclusion, the Individual Image is the individualization of the Universal Image. That is, it is a Universal Image with a concrete uniqueness. Let me demonstrate this using as the example, two persons named A and B who have quite different personalities. A has a squarish face; he is tall; his frame and muscles are well developed, and he is fond of sports and music. His forehead is not so broad; his temperament is bright and sociable, and he is kind and has a lot of common sense. In contrast with A, B is short and high browed; his face is narrow and long; his frame and muscles are average in development, and his particular taste is for reading rather than sports or music. His temperament is introverted and unsociable; he has great technical knowledge in a special realm rather than broad general knowledge. All of these aspects are the peculiarities and Individual Images of A and B. Both of them have the Universal Image (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positive and negative aspects) while their Individual Images are the peculiarities of their mind (Sung Sang) and body (Hyung Sang), and of their positivity and negativity. A's tall stature, squarish face, developed frame and low-browed forehead are the peculiarities of his Hyung Sang (body) namely the Individual Image of the Hyung Sang; and his taste for sports and music, sociability, and kindness are the peculiarities of A's Sung Sang, namely the Individual Image of the Sung Sang. Likewise, B's short stature, averagely developed frame and muscles, and high-browed forehead are the peculiarities of his Hyung Sang; while his taste for reading, his unsociability, introversion, and capacity for technical knowledge, etc. are the peculiarities of his Sung Sang. The relationship between positivity and negativity and the Individual Image is similar to this. For example, to express the positive side of his mind, A may smile while B may make a joke. That is to say, there may be different ways of expressing positive feelings, such as brightness and cheerfulness. It is the same with negative feelings. That is, to express grief, A may shed tears while B may endure in silence. Also in both positive forms such as the nose bridge and negative forms such as the ear hole, there are many differences between people. Thus the Individual Images appear in the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and positivity and negativity. In conclusion, the Individual Image is not unrelated to the Universal one. Rather, it is nothing but a special type of Universal Image, its peculiar phenomenal type. There is no concrete Universal Image which does not hold an Individual Image. Namely the Universal Image is, without fail, regulated by an Individual Image in its development into the world of phenomena.
This is because the location of the Individual Image is in the Inner Hyung Sang of the Original Being. The Inner Hyung Sang is the Hyung Sang part within the Original Sung Sang. In other words, the Original Individual Image is already in existence within the Universal Image of the Original Being. In the formation of the Developing Quadruple Base of the Original Image (the Universal Image), this Individual Image causes it to have definite peculiarities by regulating the character of the give-and-take action.
(iv) The Individualization of the Chung-Boon-Hap Process
Here I am going to touch upon the relationship between the Individual Images and the C-B-H process. As already mentioned, an individual truth body forms a Quadruple Base internally and there are both Static and Dynamic Quadruples. judging from the time perspective, this formation of the quadruples is the Chung-Boon-Hap Process. Because the Individual Image is one of the attributes of an individual truth body, the relationship between the Individual Image and the C-B-H process should rightfully be made clear. Stating the conclusion prematurely, an Individual Image is nothing less than the individualized Chung-Boon-Hap process, that is, the individualized action of give-and-take. Here the G-T (give-and-take) actions are those between the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity, that is to say, the G-T actions of subjects and objects. Yet as mentioned above, when a Universal Image appears, it naturally has a definite peculiarity, or Individual Image.
A Universal Image appears, of course, only through the G-T action. None of its elements (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity) can appear by themselves. For instance, mind (Sung Sang) can not directly appear without the G-T action between mind and body (brain cells) which gives rise to mental activities such as pleasure, displeasure, perception, memory, reasoning and the like. And it is obvious that the mental activities are incomplete when the G-T action is interrupted such as when the brain is benumbed by alcohol or high fever. The same is true for the body. The physiological operations such as digestion, respiration, blood circulation, and so on can not become perfect through the functioning of the stomach, lungs and heart alone, but only together through their harmonious G-T action with the other organs. For example, the stomach can function fully only through its G-T action with the heart, liver, pancreas, etc. A healthy body (Hyung Sang) is indebted from childhood to the ingestion of nutritious food, to harmonious physiological action and to a perfect G-T action between the mind and body, whereas a sickly body is due to imperfect G-T actions between the above-mentioned factors.
It should not be overlooked that a good or bad internal G-T action has a decisive effect on the development of a Universal Image. Accordingly if an Individual Image means the individualized Universal Image, in the same sense, the individualized Chung-Boon-Hap process is also the Individual Image itself.
Then what is the concrete meaning of the individualized C-B-H process? It means that each person has a different way of giving and taking. Owing to the differences of the G-T actions between the mind and brain cells in each person, even when we look at the same moon, one person may rejoice while another may feel sad. Furthermore, as there are differences in the physiological operations of men, while eating the same kind of food, one person will be all right while another will develop urticaria. Medical science has recognized that there are differences in the physical constitutions of people. These in fact are the differences of man's physiological operations and the individualization of the many compound C-B-H actions within man.
As already mentioned, there are two aspects to the C-B-H action, both static and dynamic. Of these, the dynamic developing C-B-H action has three dimensions, that is, its development occurs due to three factors: the G-T action between Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, the G-T action between positivity and negativity, and the Logos. All these factors are the universal elements common to all individual truth bodies.
However, since every individual is an existing being with individual peculiarities in addition to the universal elements, these three actions must have their respective Individual Images. The Individual Images mentioned above are those of the Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, and of the positivity and negativity. Here I am to touch on the Individual Image of the Logos. As stated above, the Chung-Boon-Hap process is also regulated by the Logos. Logos means the nomological dimension within an individual truth body, so it obviously affects its development; that is to say, development also has a special aspect according to each individual. This is the Individual Image of the Logos.
Take, for example, multiplication. When a pregnant woman delivers her baby, it is the contraction of the uterus that actually delivers the child; but the intensity, frequency, and duration of travail, time of delivery, and the strength of the womb contractions, etc. are different according to different women. The delivery of the baby by the womb contractions is a physiological action which is a kind of natural law (Logos). Thus the differences in the concrete expressions of the action (law) are due to the individual peculiarities such as, the differences in the anatomical structures of the wombs and of the path of delivery (in childbirth), mental and nervous distinctions and the like. This is the Individual Image of the Logos (Principle).
Thus, it is clear that the action of Logos in development has both universal and individual aspects. After all, there is evidently another element-the Individual Image involved in development-along with the three elements of 1) Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, 2) positivity and negativity, and 3) Logos. It is the unified action of these four elements which gives rise to concrete developing phenomena. We call such a feature the "Four Motives of Development." Through these four motives of development, it is possible to explain how an individual truth body changes constantly while maintaining its identity. However, in dealing only with the Universal Image in development there is no need of the Individual Image, so in this case, a concept named the "Three Motives of Development" is established.
(v) The Individual Image, Idea and Concept
First let me deal with the relationship between an Individual Image and an idea. An idea, as is widely known, is the image in the mind which portrays an object. In creating the universe in the beginning, God would have had mental images of each thing to be created. In other words, in His mind, He would have thought of the images of each creature with their peculiarities such as shape, structure, function, and so on and He would have surely created things just the same as these images which would have been the standard for creation. As a painter maps out his scheme first and then paints what he visualized in his mind, so God caused the images in His mind to be expressed in time and -space. According to Scripture,
And God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light ... and there was evening, and there was morning, one day .... and God made the firmament and separated the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. And it was so .... a second day .... And God said, "Let the earth put forth vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit". . . . And it was so .... a third day. And God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night;" . . . And it was so.... a fourth day. And God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the firmament of the heavens.". . . a fifth day. And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds: cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth according to their kinds." And it was so.... God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them ... And it was so ... a sixth day. (Genesis 1: 3- 3 1)
The words "it was so" mean that all things were created like their images in His mind as well as created as He had wished. Such a mental image is referred to as an idea. Then what is the relationship between an Individual Image and an idea? Needless to say, the idea is the very Individual Image itself. The Individual Image in the Original Image was the mental image pictured in the mind (Sung Sang) of the Original Being; namely it was an idea or representation. I mentioned above that the Individual Image was in the Inner Hyung Sang of the Original Sung Sang. The Inner Hyung Sang contains ideas and representations. As frequently mentioned, the Sung Sang contains both the actual thinking element and also the thoughts themselves. The thinking element is subject while the elements being thought are the objects of the thinking element. The former is the Inner Sung Sang which has the function of intellect, emotion and will, and the latter is the Inner Hyung Sang which contains ideas (concepts) and principles (laws). The ideas composing this Inner Hyung Sang are Individual Images. (See "The Structure of the Original Image.") Next, I will touch upon the relationship between an Individual Image and a concept.
A concept is a mental image which is the synthesis of abstracted elements common to various kinds of individuals. It has both intension (connotation) and extension (denotation). After all, a concept is a name given to common features; it thus may contrast with the Individual Image which means the individual peculiarities. The concept "man" is a "rational and valuable being", while the individual peculiarities of a Mr. Kim may be expressed by his particular appearance, stature, personality, unique temperament and the like. The concept "bird" is "an animal which flies", while the individual peculiarities of a crow may be "a black bird which cries, 'caw, caw.' " Thus, concepts indicate common features, and ideas indicate peculiarities.
From such a view, the relationship between concepts and Individual Images seems the same as that between the Universal and Individual Images. But, strictly speaking, this is not true, because the Universal Image means only Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity. Needless to say, Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity may be denoted by a concept, but since a series of subordinate and superordinate concepts exists, the subordinate concepts may be considered individual compared to the superordinate concepts. For example, though "fowls" is the superordinate concept to sparrows, doves, hens, and the like, it may also be regarded as a subordinate concept along with fish, reptiles, mammals, and so on in relation to the concept "Vertebrata." Accordingly, compared with the Vertebrata, the concept of fowls is more individual because it is more specific. In other words, when considered as a peculiarity, the concept fowls is individual but when considered from the point of common features, it is a concept. But most important here is that no vague animals, plants, men, fowls, and so on, that is to say, no conceptual beings were predetermined in creation. Rather, concrete animals were determined such as cows, horses, dogs, hens, sparrows, doves, mackerels, anchovies, etc.; and concrete plants such as pine trees, bamboo, apple trees, rose bushes, rice, barley and the like; and concrete human beings with peculiarities of appearance, personality, etc. What must be clarified here is that these individuals have concepts, namely common features, in multifold strata. For example, a hen (individual) has not only the peculiarities of being a hen itself but also the peculiarities of fowls, the vertebrata and even of living beings, as broader superordinate concepts. In other words, people may say that higher beings (such as higher animals) are polystrata of all the characteristics of lower beings (such as lower animals); however as mentioned in the section "Monostratic Nature of the Individual Image", the polystrate concept is false. The fact that individual characteristics seem to form a polystraturn is due to the abstraction, classification and systematization of the common features of various individual truth bodies through man's rational approach which is attempted for a better understanding of existing beings.
If, however, all these concepts are the outcome of the abstraction and classification of individual characteristics, were there not originally concepts in the Original Image? Were there only ideas in the Original Image? No, never. Concepts were in the Inner Hyung Sang of the Original Image along with the ideas. Abstraction existed in the world of the Original Image and man's ability to abstract resulted from this. As the creation is one of resemblance and there are so many ideas, and they are so diverse, it is natural that all the individual bodies have common features. Accordingly, it is obvious that the abstraction of common features and the concepts of it would have already existed in the Original Image. To put it exactly, concrete ideas and abstract concepts co-existed in the Original Image.
(vi) The Universal and Individual
Here I will now touch upon the relationship between the universal and individual again, but from a different angle. It was previously made clear that the Universal and Individual Images are not separate but rather compose the individual truth body through their unity. Which of these is prior, the Universal Image or the Individual Image? As mentioned above, ideas are prior to concepts. But since the relationship between the Universal Image (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang, positivity and negativity) and the Individual Image is not the same as the concept-idea relationship, I will deal with them in a separate way. To jump to the conclusion, a Universal Image is prior to an Individual Image, because in the Original Image, the Universal Image is the attribute necessary for the self-existence of the Original Being; whereas an Individual Image is a necessary condition only for the act of creation. For example, in the relationship between mind and body (Sung Sang and Hyung Sang), and thinking, which is prior? Since mind and body are inborn and thinking is acquired, the former are, of course, prior, while the latter is posterior.
In the Original Being, the Universal Image is indispensable for the self-existence of the Original Being while the Individual Images are a necessary condition or means only for making the Original Being joyful through creation. They have no relation to His self-existence. Therefore the Universal Image is primary or prior and the Individual Images are secondary or posterior. (Strictly speaking prior and posterior do not really exist, but rather, as mentioned above, the term "prior" really means "more essential", and the term "posterior" means only "less essential.") There is a similar question, however, which asks which is prior, the universal or individual? Here universal does not mean the Universal Image but has a meaning similar to "concept." It is the kind of name given to the common features of various kinds of things, such as mineral, plant, animal, and man. Here individual means the concrete individuals such as Mr. Lee so and so, Mr. Kim so and so, hibiscus, peach, hen, dove, iron, copper and the like.
Accordingly, the question of priority between the universal and individual presents the following issue. Did "a man" exist as an idea in God and then develop into Mr. Kim or Mr. Lee through creation, or was there no vague "man" in the beginning but rather were the concrete men named "Mr. Kim" or "Mr. Lee" created first and then the term "man" made by the abstraction of the common features of these concrete men (such as "men are rational and valuable beings, different from all other animals")? The so-called Universalienstriet (the dispute about the universal) among scholastic philosophers was typical of the disputes concerning this question throughout the history of philosophy. This philosophical question is such an important one that Unification Thought should clarify its own standpoint on this issue.
According to Unification Thought, the relationship between the universal and individual is considered like that between concepts and ideas, idea being prior and concept posterior. The reason the relationship between the universal and individual is considered to be like that between concepts and ideas is that we have to seek the ultimate cause of the universal and individual in the world of phenomena and deal with the problem in the world of cause. And next, the reason that idea is prior and concept is posterior is, as mentioned above, that the creation of God is not a creation of vague conceptional beings but one of concrete individual truth bodies. Both concepts and ideas were required for creation. To repeat, however, ideas were prior while concepts were posterior, for as already mentioned, God's creation was not of concepts but of concrete individuals. The ultimate causes of the universal and individual were the concepts and ideas in the Original Image. The concepts came to be formed as mental images corresponding to the common features of ideas which had existed prior to them.
To put it concretely, since the Original Being has Heart, he is considered to have first visualized Adam and Eve, concrete human individual truth bodies, as objects of heart and love. Then because creation begins with the outer aspects, it was inevitable that God create an environment for human life such as animal, plant, and mineral individual truth bodies. For their creation, God used Adam and Eve as the standard (specimen). In other words, the mineral, plant, and animal kingdoms were created taking after certain parts of the elements of Adam and Eve. [Note: Taking after certain partial elements implies disregarding the rest of the elements. For instance, God disregarded man's (Adam and Eve's peculiarities such as reason, heart, and so on and created animals, plants and minerals using man's physical body as the specimen. This means that the parts of the specimen (the flesh body of man) given to the animals, plants and minerals through imitation are their common elements. Therefore taking after partial elements means abstracting these very elements. Man's faculty of abstraction must have indeed come from that of God.]
These parts then became the common features of all the existing beings other than man, and accordingly became the concepts of these beings. We call such common features the "Concept Derived from the Specimen." Meanwhile, since the descendants of Adam and Eve have taken after them, the parts taken after have become the common features of the human race, and so necessarily make up the concept "man." One or several concrete animals would be created first, and then many other similar animals would be made in imitation of those already created. In other words, in the creation of animals also, the ideas of individual beings were formed first, as in the case of man, and then many kinds of animals similar to them were made imitating the individual beings. In this case also, the imitated aspects become the common features of all the other various individual beings taking after them. These aspects corresponding to the imitated aspects then, namely, the concepts derived from the specimens, are considered to have been formed in this way.
Thus in the creation process first there was the idea which became the specimen, then secondly, from this idea, the concept was formed. In this case, in Unification Thought, the idea is called "Idea as Specimen." In this view, the idea-forming process of the Original Being is opposite to the creation process of the universe. In the universe, the creation order was from inorganic matter to organic matter, plants, animals, and man. To the contrary, in the world of the Original Being the order of the formation of ideas was from man to animals, plants, organic matter and inorganic matter. Thus even the ideas of the individual beings of the microscopic world, such as the ideas of molecules, atoms, and elementary particles, were all formed in imitation of the elements of human physical constituents (the human physical body is composed of many elements).
In nature there are, of course, many elements that are not in the human physical body, but the ideas of these elements may be considered to have been formed through a further imitation of one of the imitated parts of the human physical elements. With such a view, we can understand the true meaning of the Principle of Creation that the entire creation, from atoms to heavenly bodies, was created for man. The saying "Before creating man, God made all things in the image and likeness of man's character and form. Therefore, man is the encapsulation of all things." (Ibid., p. 44) is a concise expression of this fact. This, then, is the Unification Thought standpoint on the relationship between concept and idea. However, it should not be overlooked that this order applies only to the order of ideas as specimens and the concepts derived from the specimens. The ideas of the various kinds of individual truth bodies of the lower positions, that had to be created by the imitation of the concepts which were derived from the specimens, were created after the concepts. Thus an idea coming from the concept which was derived from the specimen had an aspect which imitated the specimen. This aspect is called the "Idea of Similarity."
For example, there first was an idea for the specimen named Adam, and then with Adam's physical body as the specimen, the concepts derived from the specimen appeared: animal, plant and mineral. These concepts, based on the specimen named Adam, were posterior to the idea. But when the ideas of the similarities of the various individual beings such as cow, dove, snake, salmon, hibiscus, barley, pine tree, tulip, hydrogen, chlorine, and iron, were formed from the concepts derived from the specimen, in these cases the concepts were prior to the ideas, because, in these cases, the ideas are of similarities not of specimens. In conclusion, the idea as specimen is prior to the concept derived from the specimen, while the concept derived from the specimen is prior to the idea of similarity. This is the viewpoint of Unification Thought. Thus there are two ways to settle the dispute of the order of the appearance of ideas and concepts in Unification Thought. [Note: Since Adam and Eve took after the Original Image, the idea of Adam and Eve could be considered an idea of similarity, and the Original Image may be referred to as a concept derived from the specimen. In this case, the concept seems to be prior to the idea. But as mentioned before, the Original Image can not be considered a concept. This is because the Original image is an attribute of the Original Being, while concepts are one of the composing elements of the Inner Hyung Sang. The concepts contained in the Original Being are not the Original Image itself, but rather these exist in the Inner Hyung Sang. Therefore the relationship between the Original Being and man is, as mentioned before, like that between the Universal Image and Individual Image, and never like that between concepts and ideas.]
(vii) The Individual Image and the Environment
Through the above explanation, it has been made clear that the unique features of all individual truth bodies originated in the Individual Images within the Original Image. Here it should be added that these individual beings change and develop through G-T with their environment. As already mentioned, [see ii and iv] the individual truth bodies form Developing Quadruple Bases through G-T action (in a subject and object relationship) with other beings. This means, in other words, that an individual body itself changes through its G-T action with the environment. That is to say, the Individual Image of the individual truth body is ruled not only by the Original Image, which conditions it even before it is materialized, but also is still partly under the influence of the environmental factors after it is materialized. For example, when a man comes into being, the Individual Images such as his frame, appearance, individuality, physical constitution, etc. are predetermined by heredity. But in the growing process, a man's physical frame and constitution change, and his personality, individuality and posture are influenced by food, weather, regional conditions (mountains, seashore, coast or city), education, family environment and so on. Namely, the human Individual Image is not totally determined a prz*orz*, but is also influenced a posten*0n*. The same is true for the animal, plant and mineral kingdoms. For example, though the Individual Image such as the specific kind and quality of rice is already determined inside the rice seed, after the young rice plant is planted, the realistic length, volume and quality of rice produced are influenced by water, weather, fertilizer, etc. Every chemical element changes incessantly through G-T, that is, through physicochemical interactions with other elements. Thus, although an Individual Image is regulated by the Original Image, a part of it changes through the environmental factors. Before, I said that when an individual truth body forms the Inner Quadruple Base and the Dynamic (Developing) Quadruple Base, from the time perspective this is the C-B-H process. The individualization of the C-B-H process meant the G-T actions between mind and body (brain), and the actions among the various organs such as sense organs, tissues, cells, etc. Yet, this inner C-B-H process does not develop independently of the outer G-T (the relationship with the environment), but is related to it. The Inner Quadruple and inner C-B-H process continue under the influence of the outer conditions, and the outer G-T action appears through the inner G-T action.
This is an outline of the environmental influence on the Individual Image of the individual truth body. The individual truth body as a subject also often exercises influence over the environment. In relation to man, this means that man, as a subject, exercises dominion over nature. The animal, plant and mineral kingdoms also influence the environment as individual truth bodies. The influence of an individual truth body means that each individual being (according to its Individual Image), exercises a particular influence on the environment.
There are many films on Nature which show clearly that every animal, from microscopic to huge ones, exercises a particular influence on its living environment, and so the animals, plants, and minerals mutually affect each other. Thus the outcome of the respective particular influences of one individual being on another through the G-T actions between them is here called the "Individual Effect of a G-T Action. "
Accordingly the Individual Image of an individual truth body was essentially regulated in the Original Image but in actual phenomena, it is outwardly and incessantly regulated and changed by countless individual effects of G-T actions. In other words, an Individual Image exercises influence over others and is also influenced by them.
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