Truth Is My Sword Volume I -Collected Speeches in the Public Arena
by Bo Hi Pak
Fraser Hearings: First Round
Opening Statement: March 22, 1978
The late 1970s and early 1980s were a time of serious persecution for the Unification Church in America, particularly the highly publicized hearings conducted by Rep. Donald Fraser on the Unification Church early in 1978, described in Dr. Pak's speeches below. But, in addition, on November 18 of that year over 900 members of Jim Jones' Peoples Temple of San Francisco committed mass suicide in their jungle compound of Jonestown in Guyana following the assassination of U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan by Jones followers when Ryan came to investigate Jonestown. Emboldened by the resulting anti-cult hysteria, government prosecutors succeeded in convicting Reverend Moon himself on trumped-up tax charges in 1981. Dr. Pak was often the point man for these persecutions, and the persecutors usually came to regret taking him on. In the following testimony given before Fraser's subcommittee on international relations, Dr. Pak turned the tables on him, pointing out his leftist connections and bias against South Korea.
Mr. Chairman, honorable congressmen, members of the staff, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to make it clear that I have been resisting this investigation adamantly. Why? Not because I have something to hide, not because I am afraid of any exposure-but because of the way this investigation was motivated and conducted, and because of the lack of objectivity and sensitivity to what kind of impact it is having upon many innocent people, not only in this country but around the world.
My noncooperation with this investigation was not a blanket refusal. I wholeheartedly cooperated in the beginning. In fact, at the beginning of the investigation I actually volunteered information on the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation, Inc. (KCFF), Radio of Free Asia (ROFA), and the Unification Church to the chairman. On June 9, 1976, I voluntarily made an appointment with you, Mr. Chairman, and I came in with bundles of information. I voluntarily briefed you and answered all of your questions at your office. Your assistant at that time, Mr. Richard Mauzy, was present. If I remember correctly, both you and Mr. Mauzy took detailed notes throughout the conversation, and I left supporting documentation with you at that time.
Furthermore, I also volunteered to meet with the Public Integrity Section of the Justice Department, represented by Mr. Paul Michel, when I was implicated in the so-called Tongsun Park bribery case. We had an honest, open, and candid discussion. I voluntarily laid out my side of the story. It was a very good, heart-to-heart discussion and that was the end of my relationship with them. I have not heard from them since.
On October 29, 1976, when The Washington Post first exploded the Tongsun Park case, my name was mentioned as a participant in an alleged Blue House meeting to formulate the master plan for influence-buying in Congress. I was in Europe at the time and heard this news in London. I immediately canceled all my business appointments and flew directly back to Washington, D.C. Two days later, on November 1, 1976, I stated my position fully at a press conference at the Washington Hilton Hotel.
It has been a long-standing principle of mine to stand up and face a situation rather than run away from it. I would rather face any charges against me and openly defend myself than run away in a corner and hide or withdraw. I have always lived according to this principle because I believe in the things I have done and I am not ashamed of any of them. I am proud of what I have done in my life.
However, I resisted this committee's investigation all the way since I first discovered there is no genuine motivation to search for truth. Even if it were sincerely motivated and its concerns genuine, the pattern of conducting the investigation has been irresponsible and damaging so as to hurt and abuse many, many innocent people, particularly my revered spiritual leader, the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, and all members of the Unification Church throughout the world. So in this opening statement, I cannot help but take a little time to let you know, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, how much harm has been done already. But before I do that I want to explain my motivation so you can see the facts in the right perspective.
Before any action, there is always motivation. Before any visible consequence, there is an invisible cause. This is known as the law of cause and effect. My actions are no exception to this law. Everything that I have done in this country, and elsewhere too, had a deep motivation. I want to plead with this committee and you, Mr. Chairman, to try and grasp my motivation. In order for you to understand my motivation, I cannot help but present a short testimony of my life.
On June 1, 1950, I entered the Korean Military Academy, the equivalent of West Point, for 4 years of high-caliber military training. Here the best training was made available to future military leaders of the Korean Army. I was 20 years old at the time, unmarried, and burning with zeal and hope as a young cadet that one day I would become a general. This dream, however, lasted only 25 days. On June 25 this young cadet found himself in the middle of war without even knowing how to handle an M-1 rifle. Communist North Korea attacked that day, and the military academy cadets were the first troops committed to stop this overwhelming invasion-an impossible task. Within 3 days of battle our 330 classmates had been reduced by two-thirds. Of my classmates, 220 died without ever receiving even a rank or serial number.
Soon afterwards we were sent to Pusan, rushed through eight weeks of training, commissioned as second lieutenants, and sent quickly back to the front-line as platoon leaders. At that time platoon leaders were consumed like Kleenex tissues, and I lost more of my friends in that first week of combat defending the Eastern Sector of the front lines.
In 1951 the Red Chinese Army entered the war. They launched what is now known as the Spring Offensive of 1951. Our division was totally outnumbered and instantly smashed by the enemy. Most of our division combat team had no time to escape and were left behind enemy lines. Along with a few other soldiers, I was hiding in enemy territory and believed that the end had come. I knew that it was just a matter of time before we were found and killed. I saw no hope. We hid in the mountains for many days without food or means of communication. Then one day we saw a long line of enemy soldiers retreating back to the North, many of them wounded and limping. I instantly knew something was happening. I saw my first glimpse of hope. A couple of days later I heard the roar of tanks from the South coming closer and closer, and then there they were. The U.S. Third Division had been pursuing the enemy to the North with tanks. God saved our lives.
When the U.S. soldiers greeted us, I literally kissed the tanks. I thanked God and thanked these saviors of my life -- U.S. comrades in arms. This was my first personal encounter with the United States of America. America had become my savior.
Since that time my respect, love, and admiration for this great nation and people have continued to grow. I fought with American officers and soldiers in subsequent battles until the war ended in 1953. I prayed to God asking that someday He would give me the chance to repay America for saving my life.
In 1961, about 10 years later, I was honored to be selected for diplomatic duty as assistant military attaché at the Korean Embassy in Washington, D.C. When I arrived in Washington, the first thing I did was write "My Tribute to America." I preserved the original mimeographed copy from 1961 and have it here with me today. I am very honored to present this copy to the committee for your reference, and I would like to quote a few paragraphs:
During the Korean War in 1950, I was a soldier who fought side by side with my American brothers in a most terrifying battle in the distant mountains of Korea. Many times during the battle I had to witness the courageous deaths of many unknown American heroes. Sometimes the enemy's high explosive fire did not even leave enough to bury.
On the tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery is inscribed: "Here rests in honored glory an American soldier known but to God." The inscription on one tomb was "Korean War." I whispered to myself, "It could be one of my friends." In great emotional shock I prayed for the souls of the heroes whose deaths I witnessed. More than 30,000 Americans died in my country and certainly most of their heroic actions were known but to God.
For me, as for many Koreans, America is more than an ally, more than a friend. America is a big brother with whom we are tied in blood-shared lives together.
This writing is certainly a vivid manifestation of my honest feeling toward America. It was true then, and it is true now. America is a big brother and my second home! Today I am indeed a citizen of the Republic of Korea, and I am an immigrant to this great nation of immigrants. Four of my six children were born in the United States, and they are American citizens. Certainly I have a loyalty to my heritage of Korea, but I owe my life to America. My loyalty to America is just as strong as that to my own country.
I became a follower of Reverend Moon in 1957. Since that time I have been a faithful disciple to him and a member of the Unification Church. Reverend Moon opened up a totally new area of being for me. He gave me rebirth and purpose in life. Because of his teaching, God was made real in my heart and I know life is eternal. Through him I also gained vision and hope for the world in which we live. The teaching of Reverend Moon can be summed up in two words: love and sacrifice for God and humanity.
In addition, through Reverend Moon, my love for America was amplified and deepened, and my heart surpassed national boundaries. In fact, as I learned of Reverend Moon's vision of America as a champion of God in this age of world crisis, my loyalty to this nation became absolute and my desire to serve this country was lit with burning zeal.
So, Mr. Chairman, the motivation for my actions comes from an inner desire to serve God, humanity, and my two beloved countries of Korea and America. From this strong sense of service, the KCFF was born and founded, ROFA was launched, the Little Angels were organized, and schools were built.
From this same strong sense of service to God and humanity, I witnessed and preached the gospel of Christ and love of God as revealed through Reverend Moon. My conscience is absolutely clear in making this statement. I may have made many honest mistakes, made many poor judgments, committed many foolish blunders, yet God is my witness that all I have done was from a motivation of service and love, and I have done nothing to destroy or harm anyone or any nation, least of all Korea or America. I violated no law-American or any other.
Here I am today in the United States Congress summoned by the august Subcommittee of International Organizations, headed by you, Mr. Chairman. I stand here not as a proud witness but more as the accused, accused as an agent or spy of a foreign country, accused as a KCIA agent, accused as the running dog of a foreign government. Nothing could be further from the truth. I know I am none of these things. Then why am I here today? Why am I singled out?
I do know one thing clearly. I am here today because I am a Korean, a disciple of Reverend Moon and a member of the Unification Church, and a dedicated anti-communist. "Korean" is a dirty word these days and everything Korean is suspect. Also, to be a "Moonie" in this country is very unpopular, and the cause for anti-communism is practically dead now. Yet I am all of those unpopular things. I may look like a fool, even be treated as a fool. Yet, Mr. Chairman, I will not recant any of those qualifications. I am a proud Korean, a proud Moonie, and a dedicated anti-communist, and I intend to remain so the rest of my life.
This morning I fervently prayed before I came here, and I thanked God for giving me such inner peace and tranquillity during these last two years of suffering, harassment, and persecution by this subcommittee. Yet, Mr. Chairman, though I am at peace with God and myself, too many innocent people are being hurt and damaged. Too many good works are being hampered. This must be stopped for God's sake. Now let me report to you just how much harm has already been done.
Destroying Lives and Reputations
For more than two years the Subcommittee on International Organizations has been ostensibly pursuing a probe of the KCIA. However, in those two years this committee has given the impression to the world through the press that the United States Congress is investigating the Unification Church of Reverend Sun Myung Moon. The Washington Post stated this clearly in an article on March 19, 1977; the Fraser subcommittee "plans to examine further ties between the South Korean government and the Unification Church of the evangelist Sun Myung Moon."
This subcommittee has allowed unsubstantiated allegations and so-called evidence to receive wide press coverage, while the sworn testimony indicating the innocence of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church has been totally ignored. By taking this openly prejudiced position, this committee has publicly discriminated against the Unification Church. Because of this committee, the Unification Church already stands accused, judged, and condemned in the eyes of the world without a trial, even though no allegation of any wrongdoing or any connection to the KCIA has ever been proven in this subcommittee or elsewhere.
Here in this committee, Mr. Chairman, you have stated that you are not investigating the Unification Church, and you say that this committee is going to honor absolute individual rights based on the First Amendment of the Constitution. However, once allegations of this committee leaked out and reached the public via the press, the allegations became a matter of fact. Out there, in the eyes of the public, I am already condemned as a KCIA agent. You may have heard one speech by Dr. Jeffrey Stein, of the Institute for Policy Studies, at the Conference of Japanese and U.S. Parliamentarians on Korean Problems, because you were a member of that conference. Even a scholar such as he said, "Bo Hi Pak, Reverend Moon's right hand man and a KCIA agent, according to former KCIA Director Kim Hyung Wook." You know Kim Hyung Wook said to you in his testimony that I am not a KCIA agent. Did you even bother to correct Dr. Stein? People around the world already believe that I am a KCIA agent. In all the world capitals it is being repeated as fact, and they refer to this committee as the source.
You have absolutely no idea how this kind of character assassination damages the individual lives of members of the Unification Church. I am indeed one of the victims of this committee and my family has been condemned also. My children have been ridiculed and accused at school. My house has been egged, and threatening phone calls have plagued the peace of our home. My honor and my livelihood have already been destroyed without my having even gone to trial.
Yet this is not all. I am particularly anguished over the fact that the noble work of a man who came to this country to preach the Gospel has been so misunderstood. Reverend Moon preached in every state and most major cities of America numerous times in the last several years. I believe his work is unparalleled by any religious leader in the United States. His vision ignited many disillusioned American youth and he became a symbol of hope to them. But now his divine work has suffered under this unfounded, vicious attack. The damage is all the more serious because, since it is happening in America, its impact is not confined to America alone. American news travels everywhere. Reverend Moon's disciples and missionaries in 127 countries are being falsely accused due to these false allegations.
Millions of innocents around the world, known as Moonies, are looked upon today practically as KCIA agents as they try to bring witness of their religious faith to the world. On the streets and in homes it is the daily diet of our members to live amid such scornful ridicule and threats. Oftentimes people call to them on the streets, "Hey, 'Moon ie,' you KCIA dog. How much do they pay you?" It is a testimony to their faith that they remain members through all of this. It is like trying to swim across a river with a block of cement tied to your foot. Whether you accept it or not, the fact remains that the manner in which this committee has conducted its investigation has been the chain that locked the cement around our members' feet, and only this committee can take that chain off, by being honest, fair, objective, and sensitive to other lives and human rights and by correcting the false allegations that the press prints. This committee has not done any of those things.
Recently, a dear young sister named Christiane Coste, a member of the Unification Church from France, was murdered in New York. Of course I am not saying that this committee was directly or indirectly responsible in any way for this particular murder, yet I do know that it is an indication of the type of environment that is building in America and around the world. A very dangerous climate of opinion has been created and the lives of Moonies all over the world are threatened by it. I live with constant danger over my life, and Reverend Moon feels imminent danger around him. He and his family are no longer safe in this nation, which is considered to be the most civilized in the world. There is a mounting feeling that Moonies are to be laughed at, abused, and used as handy scapegoats for all possible evils in America.
If this climate continues, you have no idea how many innocent and precious lives will be martyred. This committee's investigation is certainly adding fuel to the fire. All in all, I am anguished and concerned because the work of the committee is hampering the work of God and the coming of His Kingdom, and righteousness is being delayed. Without firing a single bullet or even shedding a single drop of blood, this committee may be proven in history as the worst disservice to God and this great country of America.
Reputation of My Church
March 15, 1978, just a few days ago, was a disastrous day for the Unification Church. This committee made headlines from Seoul to Washington by releasing U.S. intelligence reports of 1970. I was utterly dumbfounded when I read in one report the claim that the Unification Church was founded in 1961 by Jong Pil Kim, director of the KCIA, as a political tool of the Korean government. You know deep in your heart that this is not true, Mr. Chairman.
Reverend Moon received a revelation from God in 1936, about 25 years prior to the creation of the KCIA. That was the spiritual founding of the Unification Church. The Unification Church was officially chartered in Seoul on May 1, 1954, by Reverend Moon, seven years prior to the time President Park and Hon. Jong Pil Kim came into power in 1961.
I myself joined the church in 1957. By 1958 we had our church established in Japan, and in 1959 it was established in the United States. The early members of our church struggled long and hard, at great personal sacrifice. The first missionaries to America came here, as I have said, in 1959, years before the world even heard of Jong Pil Kim. Ask these early members if they endured so much for the sake of anyone other than Almighty God. What an insult to their faith!
A noted theologian and scholar, Dr. Frederick Sontag, recently made an in-depth study of the Unification Church for the Methodist publishing house, Abingdon Press. To get the real story of the founding of our church, he visited Korea. Let me quote here from his book Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Speaking of the founding of the Unification Church in 1954, Dr. Sontag writes: "In my travels, study and interviews, I came to firm conclusions: The movement is genuinely spiritual in its origins..." (page 195). And, "As nearly as I could determine from my tour in Korea, the story of humble origin, imprisonment and suffering is substantially true" (page 78).
I would like to present you with a copy of this book for your reference. I would like to know why the evidence from Dr. Sontag's study was not included with the documents released by this subcommittee? Why was the testimony of others, Korean and American, not balanced against this unverified CIA report? Why was other CIA material not released as well? I am sure there are documents at the CIA, perhaps even in the possession of this subcommittee, that repudiate this allegation.
You know, Mr. Chairman, that the accusation of Jong Pil Kim founding the Unification Church is not true. It is the same thing as saying that Christianity was founded by Julius Caesar. Or better still, can you, in your wildest dreams, imagine William Colby or Richard Helms, former directors of the CIA, setting up a religion as a vehicle for American foreign policy? Would the followers be called "Colbyites" or "Helmies"? Nothing in the world could be more incredible than to suggest that the director of the KCIA, or your own CIA, could even establish a church like the Unification Church. I am shocked that you even entertain the notion. If anything destroys your credibility in the eyes of the world, then this surely will.
I will bet that even the United States CIA would not dare to come before this committee and swear that the report you have released is true and accurate. You know it is a lie. Then why is the U.S. Congress, in the person of the Hon. Donald Fraser, giving this lie authenticity? Why is this kind of lie unleashed to the world without checking its validity? Do you have any idea how much damage this kind of lie does to the Unification Church and each and every one of its members? The very next day after you released this material, newspapers all over the world ran front-page headlines similar to The Washington Star's-"Moon's Church Founded by Korean CIA as Political Tool, Panel Says."
The only paper that has expressed a fair, balanced, objective view so far is The Washington Post in the person of Chuck Babcock in an article printed on March 16, 1978: "The report was labeled as unevaluated, however, and it is generally believed that Moon founded his church in 1954, before President Park came to power and the KCIA was founded."
I truly respect his objective journalism. Now, just look at what The New York Times did to us in an article by Richard Halloran on March 16, 1978, titled "Unification Church Called Seoul Tool-House Panel Releases Documents Linking Sun Myung Moon to Korean Lobbying Efforts." It says: "A House investigating subcommittee today released intelligence reports asserting that Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church was founded by a director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, Kim Jhong [sic] Pil, as a political tool in 1961."
There are two steps involved in this process:
Step 1: This subcommittee, in the powerful name of the U.S. Congress, gave unqualified authenticity to a so-called intelligence report, which is trash, total fabrication, distorted and vicious in nature.
Step 2: It was carried in papers like The New York Times, which has never treated Reverend Moon objectively; The New York Times is quoted throughout the world like the Bible, thus giving the report legitimacy. All the papers of the world need to print is one line, "The New York Times said."
Mr. Chairman, how much more must we suffer because of this committee? Tell me, Mr. Chairman, why did you do this to us? On March 15, 1978, this committee did harm such as you cannot begin to imagine. The U.S. Congress literally christened us as KCIA tools. When any genuine religious organization is associated in the public eye as a tool of the KCIA or any CIA, that is the ultimate blow-there is nothing more you can do to destroy it.
On March 15 you nailed Reverend Moon's name and the Unification Church to the cross. You crucified us. Reverend Moon and I prayed as Jesus prayed: "Forgive them for they know not what they do." Yes, we genuinely prayed. Now one week later I have come here to resurrect his name. Reverend Moon must be resurrected and the Unification Church must be resurrected. This is apparently the right season for it since Easter is coming in a few days.
But even Jesus did not have to deal with The New York Times. Today our job of resurrecting the name of Reverend Moon is infinitely more difficult because of papers like The New York Times, which have crucified Reverend Moon on a worldwide level.
Mr. Chairman, the Unification Church was founded by God, not by man. Reverend Moon is just His chosen instrument. It may appear to the world that our doomsday has come, but just as Jesus flourished ever more after the resurrection and the Christian church became stronger than ever, so will the Unification Church. How do I know this? Because I heard the voice of God. The Unification Church is founded by Him, and God and His truth are eternal and no man can put them asunder.
Reverend Moon Is the Target
As one reads the public memorandum of April 14, 1977, it becomes obvious that this committee's main target is Reverend Sun Myung Moon. I quote in part: "(1) Operational ties between the Korean Central Intelligence Agency and organizations headed by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon."
In spite of the potential breadth of the investigation, the majority of the allegations and so-called pieces of evidence in the memorandum are written in such a way that they point directly to Reverend Moon. Even when it is obvious that it is actually other people who are in question, the memorandum leaves out their names and leadingly refers every time to "associates of Reverend Sun Myung Moon." Thus, all allegations are designed ultimately to blame Reverend Moon. It is clear from the slanted wording that the subcommittee is trying to bring all focus upon this one innocent man of God, even when the implications have no real relationship to him. I as a person and members of the Unification Church as a whole resent and abhor this lack of courtesy toward one of the great spiritual leaders of our time. Certainly the spirit of American law does not hold Pope Paul responsible for all actions of his cardinals and all Catholics.
Reverend Moon is the man who awakened to the divine call of God at the age of 16 years. He is a man who toiled and sweated his entire life in search of truth; a man who, without the help of God, would have been dead many times under the worst kind of communist torture in the worst kind of concentration camp in North Korea; a man who has been outspoken as a modern-day prophet without fear for the wickedness and ungodliness of nations and people; a man who was in fact tormented and persecuted by his own government of Korea for many years.
In 1971 Reverend Moon obeyed the message of God to come to this country to ignite the hearts of the people and openly proclaim the message of the Kingdom of God on earth. Will you and Christians of this nation deny that God is alive and still able to speak through His prophets? Will God's prophets still be persecuted for speaking truth that is unpopular?
The answer is yes! Reverend Moon, being a prophet of God, speaks God's truth without fear. He demands repentance, as God demands. His message is painful to accept, but therein lies salvation. America has rejected, yet some have accepted. But one thing is sure. Reverend Moon has created a whirlwind in this country, rekindling the American dream. And many notable theologians have been compelled to admit about the Unification Church, as stated by Dr. Sontag, "We have witnessed in our own lifetime the birth, growing pains, and will see the maturity of, a new religious movement."
Is it conceivable that this man, Reverend Moon, is a KCIA agent? Can you imagine such a man working on the payroll of any government? I tell you, the Korean government cannot afford to employ Reverend Moon's services, even if it wanted to. His service is too expensive. Besides, God has already contracted his services. No one, not the Korean government or the U.S. government, can outbid or outpay God. "If you really want to use the word agent," I said to one reporter, "I will help you. You can call him an agent of God, God's agent."
Is the Unification Church Political?
By trying to connect Reverend Moon and the Unification Church to the Korean CIA, this committee is actually trying to deny that the Unification Church is a bona fide religion. You are trying to reduce it to a mere political organization. Whether or not one considers the Unification Church heretical, it cannot be disputed that it is a genuine religious organization. If one claims the Unification Church is political, then he must add that all churches and religions are political as well because the Unification Church is really no different in practice from the Roman Catholics, the Protestants, or the Jews.
If we really look at the record, we will see that the Unification Church has been far less political than all other American religious organizations. Then to be fair, one would have to investigate many other religious organizations as well. Perhaps we should start with the United Church of Christ and all the religious groups that demonstrated against the Vietnam War, or those groups that actually sent aid to North Vietnam. And one should perhaps investigate all the Jewish groups for potential ties to the Israeli government. And what about the Roman Catholic ties to the Vatican, or Anglican ties to England, or the ties of the Moslems to Arab states or of Hindus to India?
During the civil rights era, nearly every church became involved in the political arena. Nicholas von Hoffman commented on the religious climate of the 1960s as follows in the April 9, 1977, Chicago Tribune: "During the 60s other religious groups-Catholics, Presbyterians, Anglicans, and the like-put large amounts of money and support into the civil rights movement. There were screams then that the churches should stay out of politics. But churches don't, even when they want to stay out and sort of believe they should stay out. The intoxication of moral conviction compels them to use politics to give their beliefs the force of law."
These churches did far more than the Unification Church has ever done. What would this committee say about their activities? You cannot discriminate one church from another, can you?
If this discriminatory treatment goes unchecked, it will set a dangerous precedent for future governmental persecution of any religion that happens to have membership ties to any foreign country, or that may find itself connected through race or national origin to any scandal, no matter how unrelated. This is the worst kind of jingoism. It has nothing to do with the faith of a true patriot, since it is based on narrow-minded nationalism and race prejudice.
So far I have spoken in defense of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church. Now let me dwell on the defense of Korea and my own activities in the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation.
Defense of Korea and My Activities
Mr. Chairman, I brought with me a simple map of the Far East. I thought it would help explain my feelings more clearly. The red areas represent communist countries, and the red dots indicate heavy communist population. The Korean peninsula is primarily bordered by Soviet Russia, the vast country of Red China, and of course half of Korea itself is under what is probably the worst kind of communism headed by the Kim 11 Sung regime.
Outside of this perimeter is the island of Japan. As you know, Japan has no self-defense capability, and the communist parties are strong in the Japanese congress. The North Korean factions are also quite strong in Japan.
Little South Korea, with a population of 35 million people, stands imprisoned in the midst of all these overpowering communist forces and is just trying to survive. After this map was completed, I showed it to my children and asked them, "How would you feel if you lived on that blue dot, Seoul?" Their spontaneous response was scared! This is precisely what we Korean people feel-scared. We saw our small country practically overrun by communists in 1950. I fought in that war. We have had millions killed or taken to the North. We cannot afford to have the same situation happen again. Too much blood, too much tragedy. Our hearts bleed as we remember such things. No matter how much sacrifice is necessary, we cannot allow another invasion from the North.
With the above situation, the Korean government must have been concerned and irritated by the planned withdrawal of U.S. troops, announced in 1970. Of course the Korean people were disheartened by the prospect of a U.S. withdrawal. The government, as well as the people, know that the U.S. presence is vital for our national security. Both the government and the people have become very desperate, and they want to do something about it. This is the natural instinct for survival.
Let me, at this point, share with you a very short, heartrending story. I had a secretary, Lynn Doerfler, who mastered the Korean language when she was in Korea. She once told me this story as a testimony of how Koreans feel toward the United States. One day she was taking a walk with another American along the outskirts of a Korean town. They came upon two small Korean children, about 7 and 5 years of age. When the children spotted the tall Americans approaching them, the youngest was slightly scared and he called out, "Big nose people are coming!" (Americans are nicknamed big nose people in Korea.) Then the older boy said to his little brother in a reassuring tone, "No need to be scared. Big nose people are good people. Without them we Koreans all die." This was the word of a 7-year old in the countryside of Korea.
Lynn was utterly amazed. Of course, the children had no idea she could understand their conversation. She told me that this one encounter explains more of Korea's true heart toward and appreciation of the U.S. presence in Korea than any amount of speeches could possibly convey. I tell you, that feeling is universal throughout Korea, whether you are 7 or 70 years old.
Korea is possibly still the only country in which you have yet to hear the slogan "Yankee go home." In 1960, during the student uprisings in Seoul, the city was in total chaos. Yet you would always find flowers in front of the statue of General Douglas MacArthur. The Korean people were careful to show that this outburst of anger should not be interpreted in any way as anger toward the U.S. presence.
When the U.S. withdrawal became definite, everybody jumped on the bandwagon to do something to hold the friendship and attention of America. Practically a hundred different public relations campaigns were launched, not only by the government, but by many private organizations that have some connection to the United States. There may have been some misjudgments; there may have been some overzealousness. But to me the tragedy of the so-called Koreagate is that it is a result of overzealousness and misjudgment.
Some businessmen saw an opportunity. They had a field day. All they had to do was show to the Korean government their power of influence in the United States. Some officials might have clutched at this the way a drowning man clutches at straws. I do not know what they actually did, but I do know one thing: I do not condone any illegal activities, nor will my principles permit me to resort to methods such as buying influence with money. So I have never engaged in such activities.
But promoting goodwill and friendship between Korea and the United States on a people-to-people level, yes. I certainly did and did my utmost best. I believe in it. That was the sole purpose of the KCFF and a project like the Little Angels. I genuinely wanted to see closer ties, closer cooperation, closer friendship on a people-to-people basis between Korea and the United States. I brought the Little Angels, a Korean children's folk dance troupe, to this country 11 times. That was one of the most beautiful examples of promotion of goodwill between two countries.
Former Senator Fulbright, a harsh critic of ROFA, came to see them two times and his heart was melted. Even Mr. Ranard, our unfriendly State Department official, came to see them and apparently enjoyed the performance. I have a picture of him being kissed by the Little Angels. Millions of Americans have seen the Little Angels in live performances and on television. I have not yet received one single negative comment.
In fact, one U.S. senator wrote this to us in 1976: "The program was beautiful. It was well done and it was inspirational. I am sorry that it was not produced on television so that every citizen of my country could have seen it. I want to thank you, your country, and all who were involved in this wonderful performance."
One high official of the State Department wrote: "On behalf of the Department of State and the American people, I wish to thank you for bringing your group to America and giving us such a fine salute on our bicentennial."
A secretary on Capitol Hill wrote: "The perfect voices which sang `God Bless America' brought tears to my eyes. It was so meaningful for me to know that the Korean children knew one of America's most patriotic songs, singing it with such joy. I have had the opportunity to hear many choirs but my ears were never so fortunate to experience the precious voices of The Little Angels of Korea."
Also, the Australian impresario for the Little Angels wrote after the Little Angels' first tour in Australia in 1972: "I can think of no better way of trying to promote peace and good will amongst all nations than to have the Little Angels taking their message to the four corners of our globe."
Then, I was surprised one day to receive a letter from the U.S. ambassador to Australia: "In my opinion, this performance did more for Korean-Australian relations than anything the Korean embassy has done. Since this was sponsored by an American Foundation I have been wondering whether anything comparable is available from your Foundation or any other organization in the United States."
In 1971 the Little Angels were invited by the Queen of England for a command performance in London. The delighted Queen Elizabeth invited all the troupe to a royal reception after the performance, which has never before occurred in British protocol. The Little Angels have given 1,600 live performances on the world's stages, appeared on 200 television programs, and appeared as guests before over 30 heads of state.
Radio of Free Asia was organized in the same spirit-to promote goodwill and friendship based upon the common spirit of freedom and to provide some critical service via broadcast to the oppressed millions behind the Bamboo Curtain. From the very beginning, ROFA set out to be a citizens' radio for freedom, seeking no subsidy from any government other than moral support. General Eisenhower gave us the slogan for ROFABridge of Truth. ROFA has broadcast truth about the free world to victims behind the Bamboo Curtain from transmitters leased from Korea, the Philippines, Laos, and Vietnam before the fall of Saigon.
When the United States put the first man on the moon, ROFA made sure people behind the Bamboo Curtain knew about its historical achievement. When the POW/MIA plight became great, ROFA launched a spectacular humanitarian crusade to arouse world protest against the inhumane treatment of POWs. ROFA made sure North Vietnam knew about angry world opinion through 225 special programs broadcast into North Vietnam. Many senators, congressmen, government, and civic leaders and POW/MIA families voiced their anger from the ROFA microphone. It was one of the most righteous humanitarian crusades in modern history, and we received king-size thanks from the families of the POW/MIAs.
Understanding our goal, the Korean government and people supported this program of ROFA. They believed in our sincerity and knew our objectives were good for both the U.S. and Korea. When I said supported, I did not mean monetary support or control. They gave us their blessing, they gave us their moral support, and we were flourishing until the State Department zeroed in on us as part of a predetermined plan to destroy ROFA and KCFF as a whole.
In 1971 hell fell upon ROFA and myself. Upon the insistence of the State Department, a full-scale investigation by the FBI and the Justice Department was launched. They literally brought me before the judgment seat. Simultaneously the IRS launched its full-scale investigation.
Mr. Chairman, no one could survive such investigations by two of the most powerful federal agencies, the FBI and the IRS, and the pressure of two mighty departments, State and Justice, all at the same time. If I had done anything at all wrong or illegal, however slight, I would not have survived that 1971 ordeal. And if I had not had faith in God, I would have been broken during those judgment days. Then after a year-long investigation, what did they find? Nothing. Absolutely nothing. I was cleared by the FBI, the IRS, and the Justice Department. The IRS found nothing and sent me this letter of a clean bill of health, referring to KCFF:
September 29, 1971: After reviewing your activities and examining your financial records for the above years) we find that your Federal tax-exempt status continues. The retum(s) for the years) indicated are accepted as filed. District Director
On March 16, 1972, Acting Attorney General Richard Kleindienst wrote a final letter to Secretary Johnson of the State Department: [Y]ou are advised that the Department of State would have no objection to the Federal Bureau of Investigation instituting a full-scale investigation of the organization known as Radio of Free Asia ....
The FBI investigation of that organization has been completed. Based on a review of the information made available by the CIA, the Department of State and the FBI ... the evidence is insufficient to constitute Radio of Free Asia as an agent of foreign principal .... It has also been determined that there is insufficient evidence to establish a violation of the statutes on fraud or the mails or any other federal law which I am chosen to enforce.
This department is contemplating no further action in the instant matter. Richard Kleindienst, Acting Attorney General
The case was dropped. I, KCFF, and ROFA all survived the worst test and were proven innocent. Mr. Chairman, today you are rehashing the same old material and trying to make a scandalous new case out of what is old hat. If this poor Korean man committed even one single wrongdoing, one illegal act, or made any trivial amount of fraud, I would be in jail now. I would never have survived such total bombardment. I survived only because I have not done anything wrong or illegal.
If anyone challenges whether there was a full-scale investigation on the part of any of these agencies or departments, then I must ask him just how much blood he wants. The IRS instituted a most comprehensive investigation; the justice Department certainly launched a full-scale investigation by both the FBI and the criminal division. They evaluated information from the CIA and the Department of State as well and came to the conclusion that there is no basis for any of the allegations put forth.
Those investigations were not only looking to find guilt concerning the Foreign Registration Act but also to see if there had been any criminal wrongdoing. The criminal division found no evidence of fraud anywhere. They came up empty-handed and concluded there was no case.
For God's sake, what more could these agencies legally and ethically do without constituting harassment or even a witch-hunt? After all, you can't squeeze blood out of a turnip.
Feelings Toward President Park's Government
Finally, I would like to register my true feelings toward President Park's government. I made it clear over and over that I was not appointed by the Park government to be a military attaché in this country back in 1961. I was appointed by the previous Chang Myun government, which was deposed by President Park.
The Korean military revolution of 1961 came while I was in Washington. When the news came, I immediately wrote a letter to The New York Times and it was kind enough to print a portion of my letter about the situation in Korea. It appears in the July 1, 1961, edition in the Letters to the Editor section. I would like to read a paragraph from that letter:
Defends Korea's Regime: Army Officer Declares Coup Saved Nation From Communism. In the case of Korea, it was only after the Korean military saw that the corrupt and incompetent government was helpless in the face of indirect communist aggression and the nation was reaching the danger point of communist domination through subversion that the military acted to save the nation from this hopeless situation. I cannot say that the Korean military coup was justified under normal democratic processes. But I am convinced that the military junta gave Korea a chance for the survival of democracy at the time when Korea was at the brink of collapse.
That letter was written out of my own conviction. Writing a letter to The New York Times was not my duty, but I freely and voluntarily wanted to express my feelings at that time. Today, about 16 years later, my conviction is the same. I am proud that I had that vision and conviction 16 years ago. Without President Park's government, our country and people might have long ago fallen into the hands of North Korean communists. I, who lived and fought for the country of Korea, had a deadly serious concern regarding the chaotic, uncontrollable situation back in 1961. I feel the Korean nation and people are deeply indebted to President Park for saving them and their country from communist takeover. We must give credit where credit is due.
On February 27, 1978, The Washington Post reported: "South Korea Economy Outstrips The North's, Cia Says."
South Korea has far outstripped North Korea in economic growth in the past decade ... according to a new [U.S.] Central Intelligence Agency study .... If Seoul's export markets hold up as anticipated and there is no large-scale war on the Korean peninsula, the CIA predicted South Korea should emerge in the early 1980s with an economy nearly three times larger than the north's .... Some U.S. observers have interpreted South Korea's growing economic strength as proof that Seoul can take care of itself.
These facts are certainly not well-known to the American public. In a few more years North Korea would not even dare to plan an outright attack on South Korea because the power difference between North Korea and South Korea would he so staggering. Was not the United States looking forward to the day when Korea would become totally self-sufficient and the danger of war would be totally eliminated? Korea has made great strides toward the goal.
As a person belonging to a religion that sees communism as an enemy of God and mankind and as a person who regards Korea as the holy land of my faith, I can appreciate more than most what President Park has done. The last thing I want to see is for Korea to become another Vietnam.
However, I want you, Mr. Chairman, to know that President Park's government has not in any way favored me or Reverend Moon or the Unification Church. Instead, we have had our programs harassed many times and delayed by petty government bureaucrats. Our burden has been great and our heart has been heavy under President Park's government.
The Korean government is keenly aware of the Unification Church's controversy overseas and bends over backwards to prove to the world that it has nothing to do with the Unification Church. They always want to stay at arm's length away from us, so we are actually fighting just to get the equal treatment that other religious organizations are normally entitled to. Sometimes they go out of their way to torment us in a political gesture to show the world that the Korean government is not a friend of the Unification Church. Such an innocent and brilliant program as the Little Angels tour has been halted. This is a great loss for Korea and I deeply abhor so shortsighted a policy.
Some might say I speak well of the Korean government in order to win its favor. Nothing is further from the truth. Let me quote once again from Dr. Sontag: "Now, with the church's rising negative press in the United States, the Park government has pushed it to arm's length again and put their relationship on hold. Church members have trouble getting visas to leave the country now, they say, and they now talk darkly of expected repression. As this book went to press, these fears were confirmed by the arrest of some of the church's leaders in Korea on the charges of income-tax evasion. It is hard to see the church as joining the Park government in secret schemes at the same time its leaders are being arrested" (pages 198-99).
Reverend Moon and the Unification Church members could become rebellious against the Korean government, and believe me it is very tempting to do just that. However, Reverend Moon always insists that we stick to our principles and says, "We are not working for any government; we are serving God and we must support Korea because God cannot afford to lose Korea to communism. This is our religious conviction."
Many people may say, "If you are a Christian, why don't you oppose the Korean government?" But I tell you, it is not for gain or favor. It is because we are Christians that we support the government of South Korea, as long as the freedom to worship remains. The most fundamental human right is the right to worship God. Winston Churchill once said that there is no perfect government and democracy is the worst, except for the others, but man has not yet developed anything better. In the case of Korea, we must choose between Park Chung Hee and Kim Il Sung.
Do we have freedom of religion in South Korea? Yes. Is there any freedom of religion in North Korea? No. None at all. In fact, there are no other freedoms in the North either. There is no comparison between the North and South. Then our responsibility, and the responsibility of Americans as well if you truly believe in human rights, is to oppose communism.
So even if we receive persecution from one government, we shall remain faithful to our religious principles. This is my position as well as the position of the Unification Church toward the Korean government.
Mr. Chairman, in conclusion I would like to make one final plea. Anything I have said today, however slight, that disturbed your peace, please forgive me. I said I have nothing against you personally.
The next time I meet you, you may very well be a U.S. senator. So my plea to you today goes beyond the realm of the International Organizations Subcommittee. I am making this plea today to a human being who may well become an important leader of our time and with a vision toward the future.
For a moment let us forget about this investigation. Forget about the KCIA. Forget about Radio of Free Asia. Let us think for a moment about destiny, the destiny of two countries, the United States and Korea. It has been a special destiny. America liberated this one small peninsula from the hands of foreign imperial powers in 1945 and gave birth to a new nation in 1948. In 1950 the United States, in the person of Harry S Truman, committed itself to the defense of Korea from North Korean communist aggression. In 3 years America lost more than 30,000 gallant men, and many more tens of thousands were wounded. America invited 15 nations to join together under the banner of the United States to defend this seemingly insignificant peninsula in the Far East.
All these years since 1945 America has invested $160 billion in war and peace. Indeed, this indicates a special destiny. It is truly beyond human comprehension and no man could have mapped out this course. It is God inspired and a preordained destiny.
In the meantime the United States and the world suffered tragedy in the name of Vietnam. America lost 56,571 lives in combat and civilian personnel, and another 303,650 were wounded. Over $200 billion was poured into Vietnam. Today it is a lost cause and America's sacrifice was made in vain. This infamous war constituted American's first war defeat in history.
Korea is different. She has not only survived the ravages of war but in just one decade she performed a miracle in building a nation right in front of the enemy. Exports surged from a meager $30 million to $10 billion in a little over 10 years. Korean people are confident that this nation of 35 million people is now emerging as one of the most industrialized nations in the world.
America's 30-year-old child is becoming strong and self-reliant and is now ready to share world responsibility with America. The son has grown up strong and ready to give a genuine "thank you" indeed.
On the other hand, there are international forces dedicated to seeing that Korea becomes another Vietnam. There are people and nations eager to see free Korea destroyed. These people are not just sitting around waiting, doing nothing. They are doing everything possible to guarantee this will happen. Ambassador Graham Martin, testifying before a congressional committee in regard to some of the anti-war leaders of the Vietnam era, stated they have already mapped out a global strategy, saying they "clearly indicated that the next target would be Korea."
If they should ever succeed, Korea would become another Vietnam. This could be a tragic day for the United States because Korea's enemy is not just Kim 11 Sung but Russia and Red China as well.
But ultimately the United States would not survive without Korea either. Why? For two reasons. Korea is in a geographically strategic position and essential to the future freedom of the world. If Korea turns into a second Vietnam, there would be a third Vietnam and that may very well be Japan. Then what would be the fourth Vietnam?
Secondly, Korea exists as a microcosm of the world conflict. What happens in Korea will happen eventually on a worldwide scale. The destinies of the United States and Korea are interlocked. I believe they cannot survive one without the other. I say this not because I am trying to save just Korea, but I say it as one who sincerely wants to see God's will succeed with the least amount of bloodshed and suffering possible.
It is God's will that His Kingdom come on earth. As Jesus said, "Thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven." God cannot bring His Kingdom through communism. God has strategically placed Korea in such a position by interlocking the destinies of Korea and America. God devised this way; it is not man-made.
Mr. Chairman, this special investigation on Korean-American relations is very much like a two-edged sword. It can do a lot of good in contributing toward future Korean-American relations, or it can do great harm. We have been learning tremendous lessons through this investigation. Both governments and people alike will become much wiser. Through these common lessons the bonds of the two countries will be stronger.
On the other hand, this investigation has a quality that could be used and exploited by our potential enemy and it might permanently cripple the relationship of the two nations, thus pushing Korea one step closer to becoming another Vietnam. You are holding that two-edged sword.
Mr. Chairman, there is an old Korean saying that goes, "In trying to pull off the horns, you may kill the cow." And there is an American saying, "You may win the battle, but lose the war." For God's sake, please uphold the God-inspired destiny of our two nations. I plead with you to win the battle and the war. Do not kill the cow while pulling at the horns.
Thank you very much, sir, for your kind attention. I am ready for your questions, or judgment. I am at your disposal. Once again, thank you, Mr. Chairman.
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